Form Similarity

Lightness similarity may be the most robust form of grouping by similarity and possibly the earliest form of similarity that infants can use as a basis for perceptual grouping (Bremner, 1994). Indeed, the findings indicating that 3-month-olds can use lightness similarity to represent the column- versus row-like organization of the arrays of elements have since been extended to newborns (Farroni, Va-lenza, Simion, & Umilta, 2000), thereby suggesting an initial ability to group on the basis of luminance information. The question arises as to whether infants can also use other forms of similarity, such as shape, to organize visual pattern information. Evidence from the adult literature indicates that there may be distinct systems for grouping on the basis of luminance and edge information (Behrmann & Kimchi, 2003; Gilchrist, Humphreys, Riddoch, & Neumann, 1997). As noted earlier, Kellman (1996) has proposed a developmentally late functional onset for mechanisms sensitive to edge information. These issues motivated Quinn, Bhatt, Brush, Grimes, and Sharpnack (2002) to examine whether young infants could organize visual pattern information in accord with form similarity. Two groups of infants, 3- to 4-month-olds and 6- to 7-month-olds, were familiarized with arrays of elements consisting of alternating rows or columns ofXs and Os and then given a novelty preference test that paired horizontal versus vertical stripes. As can be seen in Figure 5.3, the stimuli were constructed so as to match those used by Quinn et al. (1993), except that the Xs and Os were used as individual elements.

Joy Of Modern Parenting Collection

Joy Of Modern Parenting Collection

This is a collection of parenting guides. Within this collection you will find the following titles: Issues, rule and discipline, self esteem and tips plus more.

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