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Note. From Bradley, R. H., Mundfrom, D. J., Whiteside, L., Caldwell B. M., Casey, P. H., Kirby, R. S. & Hansen, S. (1994). The demography of parenting: A reexamination of the association between HOME and income. Source: Nursing Research, 43, 260-266.

Note. From Bradley, R. H., Mundfrom, D. J., Whiteside, L., Caldwell B. M., Casey, P. H., Kirby, R. S. & Hansen, S. (1994). The demography of parenting: A reexamination of the association between HOME and income. Source: Nursing Research, 43, 260-266.

2003). We found that SES was related to HOME scores for European American, African American, and Hispanic American families for children ages 4 through 14 (mostly low to moderate relations). Moreover, aspects of the home environment such as learning stimulation and maternal responsiveness tended to mediate relations between SES and child outcomes at all ages in all groups.

According to Hui and Triandis (1985), "the continuum of universality-cultural difference of a construct closely parallels the construct's level of abstraction" (p. 134). In other words, group similarities are greatest when total scores, or subscales, are analyzed, while item-level analysis is more precise in detecting group differences. For that reason, we recently began exploring data from the NLSY to investigate item-level differences by sociocultural group and poverty status. The original NLSY sample included 6,283 women who were between the age of 14 and 21 in 1979. The sample was selected to be nationally representative; however, there was deliberate oversampling of African Americans, Hispanics, and poor European Americans. Data from this sample has been collected every 2 years. Beginning in 1986, NLSY also included a child supplement which contained short forms of the four versions of HOME. We found that what children experience day to day and week to week in the households of Hispanic Americans, European Americans and African Americans are quite different from infancy through adolescence. Overall, Hispanic American and African American home environments were somewhat less supportive and stimulating than were the home environments of European Americans and Asian Americans, even when controlling for poverty status. These differences likely reflect cultural and economic legacy as well as continued macro-level sociopolitical factors such as racism. However, poverty status almost always had a greater affect on aspects of the home environment than did ethnicity. A surprising, but perhaps the most salient finding, was that the effect of poverty status was proportional across ethnic groups for all HOME short form items. Table 20.3 displays a few examples of the pervasive differences in home experiences for poor and non-poor families.

One could argue that information based on the HOME short forms collected in connection with NLSY represents a first phase of constructing a topography of the parenting environment. Certainly, it is a small first step, but the effort is perhaps more significant than is initially obvious. Determining the significance of any aspect of parenting requires an understanding of the full context of parenting. What we know about parenting and its effects from existing surveys and anthropological accounts gives nothing like the full mapping of this context. As a complement to this empirical bit-mapping of children's home experiences, we reviewed over 70 studies conducted outside the United States that utilized HOME (Bradley, Corwyn, & Whiteside-Mansell, 1997). Although there were notable exceptions, HOME total scores were similarly correlated with family structure, family status, and child outcomes across cultures. However, ethnic group differences relating to HOME subscales were quite

Joy Of Modern Parenting Collection

Joy Of Modern Parenting Collection

This is a collection of parenting guides. Within this collection you will find the following titles: Issues, rule and discipline, self esteem and tips plus more.

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