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Egalitarianism 1 Egalitarianism 2

People are all equal, no matter what the color of their skin or where they come from. It is important to get along with people no matter what the color of their skin or where they come from.

It is important to respect all people no matter what the color of their skin or where they come from.

[Basic ethnicity] people are more likely to be treated poorly or unfairly than other people. Some people may treat you badly or unfairly because you are [basic ethnicity]. It is harder to succeed in America if you are [basic ethnicity]. You should be proud to be [basic ethnicity].

It is important to know about the culture of [basic ethnicity] people.

Egalitarianism 1 Egalitarianism 2

Egalitarianism 3

Preparation for Bias 1 Preparation for Bias 2 Preparation for Bias 3 Cultural 1 Cultural 2

People are all equal, no matter what the color of their skin or where they come from. It is important to get along with people no matter what the color of their skin or where they come from.

It is important to respect all people no matter what the color of their skin or where they come from.

[Basic ethnicity] people are more likely to be treated poorly or unfairly than other people. Some people may treat you badly or unfairly because you are [basic ethnicity]. It is harder to succeed in America if you are [basic ethnicity]. You should be proud to be [basic ethnicity].

It is important to know about the culture of [basic ethnicity] people.

Parents' Ethnic Behaviors and Children's Reported Racial/Ethnic Socialization Messages

Taking into consideration the finding that parents' messages may be misinterpreted by children, we next examined relationships between parents' actual racial/ethnic behavior (i.e., traditional holiday celebration) and children's perceptions of racial/ethnic socialization messages. We expected that "actions may speak louder than words" and thus that children might see holiday celebration as a type of racial/ethnic socialization message. However, among those who reported on ethnic holiday celebration (i.e., excluding Black American and White European American samples), parents' reports of holiday celebration were unrelated children's reports of any type of racial/ethnic socialization message.

Parents' Ethnic Behaviors and Children's Ethnic Evaluation

Although the finding that celebrating cultural holidays was unrelated to children's ethnic evaluations was somewhat surprising, in actuality holiday celebration is not a direct racial/ethnic socialization message. Thus, we did not demonstrate that holiday celebration has no impact on children but rather we found that holiday celebration was not interpreted as a type of racial/ethnic socialization message. Therefore, we next examined whether or not celebration of ethnic holidays was significantly correlated with children's racial/ethnic evaluation. Indeed, among those parents who reported on their celebration of ethnic holidays, we found that holiday celebration was actually positively correlated with children's ethnic evaluation, r = .243, p = .021.

Parents' Racial/Ethnic Socialization and Children's Ethnic Evaluation

Finally, given the finding that parents' reports of holiday celebration had a positive relationship with children's ethnic evaluation, we assessed the relationship between parents' reports of racial/ethnic socialization messages and children's reports of ethnic evaluation. In essence, because racial/ethnic socialization messages can be quite subtle, it is possible that children may not be attuned to parents' ethnic/racial socialization practices as such, but that such messages nevertheless influence children's evaluations of their ethnic group. Interestingly, we found that regardless of message type, the more parents' reported sending racial/ethnic socialization messages, the more negatively children evaluated their own ethnic identities (though the relationships were again quite modest): egalitarianism, r = -.14, p = .132; egalitarianism/cultural socialization, r = -.15, p = .120; preparation for bias, r = -.13, p = .197. Although none of these relationships were statistically significant, the consistency in direction across different indicators of racial/ethnic socialization raises important questions about how parents' discussions influence children that future studies should pursue further.

Joy Of Modern Parenting Collection

Joy Of Modern Parenting Collection

This is a collection of parenting guides. Within this collection you will find the following titles: Issues, rule and discipline, self esteem and tips plus more.

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