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High DHEAS Low DHEAS

Figure 16.7 The interaction of high DHEAS levels (as an Index of High Adrenal Activity) and early maturation on girls' depressive affect. From J. A. Graber, J. Brooks-Gunn, J., & A. B. Archibald, "Links between puberty and internalizing and externalizing behavior in girls: Moving from demonstrating effects to identifying pathways, in D. M. Stoff & E. J. Susman (Eds.), Developmental psychobiology of aggression. Copyright 2005, Cambridge University Press.

High DHEAS Low DHEAS

Figure 16.7 The interaction of high DHEAS levels (as an Index of High Adrenal Activity) and early maturation on girls' depressive affect. From J. A. Graber, J. Brooks-Gunn, J., & A. B. Archibald, "Links between puberty and internalizing and externalizing behavior in girls: Moving from demonstrating effects to identifying pathways, in D. M. Stoff & E. J. Susman (Eds.), Developmental psychobiology of aggression. Copyright 2005, Cambridge University Press.

different ages at time of outcome assessment, and different conceptual frameworks (i.e., deviance of stage termination hypotheses).

Although the past few decades have been marked by many pioneering studies on the effects of the pubertal transition on adjustment, there are a few key areas to focus on for future research studies. First, as outlined in this chapter, puberty is associated with a multitude of significant biological, psychological, and social changes. Studies that assess interactions between changes in these multiple

R2 = .41; F(5, 90)= 11.60, p <.0001; Mediated Pathway via Life Events

Figure 16.8 Path model for estradiol category to aggression, via negative life events. On the left side of the model, the p values were calculated separately from estradiol category to aggression and to each potential mediator. The p coefficients on the right side of the model (shown in bold type) were calculated with all variables (predictors and mediators) entered simultaneously into the model; there are two P coefficients for estradiol category to aggression. From Graber, Brooks-Gunn, & Warren (in press).

domains represent an area of promising future research. Second, the majority of studies on the psychosocial implications of pubertal development have included White samples of children. Especially considering the noted differences between age of pubertal onset and age of menarche for White and African American girls, pubertal research is needed with more ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples. Third, studies on pubertal development have tended to begin when adolescents are already experiencing the changes of mid- to late puberty. Examining the earliest changes of puberty, such as the initial increases of luteinizing hormone, would give a more complete picture of how adolescents adjust to the entry into puberty. Additionally, some studies have indicated that rate of pubertal development and duration of pubertal timing status may have effects on adjustment outcomes (e.g., Archibald et al., 2004; Dick et al., 2000). Future studies need to further explore the effects of rate and duration of pubertal development on adjustment. Fourth, there is a need for longitudinal studies that follow children throughout the span of pubertal development and beyond, in order to better understand the longer-term effects of the pubertal transition on adjustment. Most studies from the past few decades have been cross-sectional or short-term, so it is not clear whether the effects of puberty persist over time. Finally, there has been a disconnect on the literature on factors affecting pubertal onset and pubertal factors associated with adjustment outcomes (see Graber, 2003). A future direction for research would be to jointly explore the precursors of puberty and the outcomes of puberty, in order to determine whether processes associated with onset of puberty also play a role in whether puberty influences subsequent adjustment outcomes.

Finding Your Confidence

Finding Your Confidence

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