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^Significantly different from all other conditions. Source: Sheffield & Hudson (2003).

^Significantly different from all other conditions. Source: Sheffield & Hudson (2003).

olds recall when it was administered immediately prior to recall testing (see Table 9.3). Children in an immediate recall condition, the video reinstate 10-10 condition, returned to the laboratory 10 weeks after training and viewed the video simulation. They then left the playroom and were occupied in other parts of the building while the props were replaced in the playroom. After this 15-minute break, children returned to the playroom for testing. Children in a control group (video training control 1010) were not trained, but simply viewed the video and were allowed to play with the props 15 minutes later, controlling for the possibility that children might be able to imitate the activities after viewing the videotape without prior training.

Table 9.5 shows the mean number of actions produced in spontaneous and cued recall in the video 10-10 immediate recall condition compared to recall of children in the 2-week video reminder condition, video reinstatement 2-12, from the previous experiment as well as that of children who watched the video without prior training (video training control 10-10) and were tested for recall 15 minutes later. Children in the video reinstatement 10-10 condition performed significantly better than all other groups in both spontaneous and cued recall. This finding indicates that viewing a video reminder immediately before recall testing effectively reminded children of the past training event.

Children's performance in the video training control condition was relatively low, indicating that children were not able to reproduce the activities after seeing the video if they had not been given prior training. These findings are surprising in light of Meltzoff's (1988b) research showing that 14-month-olds were able to imitate actions demonstrated by a televised model. The difference in performance may be because the actions used in Meltzoff's study were very simple ones, repeated several times by the televised model. The activities used in our research were 2-step activities that often involved moving props from different locations in the playroom and the activities were presented only once in the video. A single exposure to several of these more complex events appeared to insufficient for children to remember the actions well enough to reproduce them after a short delay. However, the

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