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improvements may be seen in those relationships (i.e., friends) that compensate for the lack of support in other relationships (see also Cicchetti, Lynch, Shonk, & Manly, 1992).

To further explore the prevalence of these attachment-like and compensatory-like relationships, we conducted a cluster analysis of perceived mother, father, and friendship support. Our findings indicated that adolescents are as likely to report compensatory-like patterns (e.g., high friendship support and low mother and father support) as attachment-like patterns (e.g., high mother, father, and friend support; Williams, 20042). Given the dearth of longitudinal research on the association between family relationships and friendships among adolescents in general, it is impossible to know the extent to which our findings regarding the presence of both attachment- and compensatory-like patterns among ethnic minority youth are particular to the population under investigation. The existing research on family and friend relationships emphasizes attachment models of relationships, rarely considering compensatory effects or attempting to integrate the two models of relationships. Our research underscores the importance of considering both theoretical models.

Parental Monitoring, Attitudes, and Rules

In addition to studies examining the association between the quality of family support and peer relationships, a growing body of research based on social learning theories has examined the links between parental attitudes and adolescent friendships. According to social learning theorists, children acquire the requisite skills for friendships through modeling and observational learning (Mischel, 1966). Such research has primarily focused on issues of parental monitoring, examining how parental monitoring at home influences the quality and characteristics of peer relationships (Brown, Mounts, Lamborn, & Steinberg, 1993; Fuligni & Eccles, 1993; Snyder & Hoffman, 1990). Findings from these studies have suggested that there is a clear association between the extent of parental monitoring and a range of adolescent outcomes including involvement with deviant peers (Ary, Duncan, Duncan, & Hops, 1999; Snyder, Dishion, & Patterson, 1986) and, positive peer contact (Brown et al., 1993; Mounts, 2001). The degree of parental monitoring has also been related to friendship development, with the two extremes of monitoring—excessively high and excessively low—being shown to interfere with children's abilities to establish friendships (Patterson & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1984). Our survey-

based research with ethnic minority youth has found parental monitoring to be significantly related to the perceived quality of closest and general friendships among youth. Adolescents who reported their parents as knowing their whereabouts, what they are doing after school, how they spend their money, and where they are during the day and evening hours, reported having more supportive closest friendships and general friendships (Rosenbaum, 20 003).

Parental guidance, or the degree to which parents directly assist adolescents with making friends, has also been examined. Vernberg and colleagues (1993), for example, documented various strategies used by parents to help their seventh- and eighth-grade children develop friendships after moving to a new school district, such as meeting with other parents, facilitating proximity to peers, talking with their adolescent children about peer relationships, and encouraging their children to participate in activities with other adolescents. More recently, in a study of Latino and European American adolescents and their parents, Updegraff and colleagues (2001) reported that parents—mothers in particular—often got to know and spent time with their children' friends as a way to influence these relationships. Mounts (2004; 2001; 2002) has also described various strategies parents use to influence their adolescents' friendships, such as guiding (i.e., talking about the consequence of being friends with particular people), neutrality (i.e., not interfering with their children's peer relationships), prohibiting (i.e., forbidding adolescents' associations with particular peers) and supporting (i.e., providing an environment at home where adolescents can have their friends over).

Our studies of ethnic minority adolescents have indicated that parental rules and attitudes regarding their adolescents' friends are also critically related to friendship quality. In a concurrent analysis, adolescents' perceptions of parental rules and attitudes was significantly associated with the quality of closest friendships over and above the effect of mother and family support. Those adolescents who perceived themselves as having parents with a more encouraging attitudes (e.g., "my parents think it is important to have friends") and rules (e.g., "my parents allow me to spend time with my friends during the weekends or after school") toward friendships reported having more supportive close friendships. Indeed, parenting rules and attitudes about friendships emerged as the only significant family-level predictor of closest same-sex friendship quality when included in a hierarchical regression model with adolescents' perceptions of family support and parental monitoring as independent predictors (Rosenbaum, 20003). In a prospective analysis, only parental attitudes about friendships predicted change over time in perceived close friendship quality. Adolescents who perceived their parents to have increasingly more positive attitudes about friendships over time also reported having increasingly more supportive close friendships (Way & Greene, 2005). Our concurrent and prospective analysis suggest that in addition to family support, parental monitoring, guidance, attitudes and rules pertaining to friendships are critical correlates of the ways in which adolescents perceive the quality of their close friendships.

Our qualitative data suggest ethnic differences in parents' attitudes about friendships. Our interview data indicated that the adolescents, particularly the Black and Asian American adolescents, perceive their parents to be extremely wary of non-familial friendships (Gingold, 20033; Way, 1998; Way & Pahl, 1999; Way & Greene, 2005). For example, Michael, an Asian American adolescent, says: "My mom doesn't think friends are important because they may betray you or something they can have a bad influence on you." Like Michael, adolescents indicated that their parents, grandparents, cousins, aunts, and uncles warned them repeatedly of the tendency for non-familial friends to be deceptive and deviant. Previous research has suggested that many families from low-income and/or ethnic minority backgrounds maintain belief systems—due to a history of discrimination and oppression—that those who are not part of one's immediate or extended family should not be trusted (Salguero & McCusker, 1996; Stack, 1974; Way, 1998). Thus, while parental attitudes about friendships may influence the quality of friendships of adolescents from a wide range of backgrounds, the particular attitudes that parents have about friendships may be group specific.

Notably, qualitative findings from our research also demonstrate that the influence of parental concerns and warnings about friendships appear to vary depending on adolescents' perceived parental closeness. Adolescents who reported being close to their parents were more likely to report being ex tremely careful regarding the selection and maintenance of their own friendships. Those adolescents who reported being less close to their parents were more likely to disregard parental warnings and be less cautious of friendships in general (Gingold, 20033). Like our survey data, which showed significant associations between the quality of parent and friend relationships, these qualitative findings suggest a compensatory pattern for those adolescents who report low levels of parental closeness. However, the compensatory mechanism appears to entail rejecting parents' warnings by seeking out friendships rather than having friends to compensate for the lack of support within their families.

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Joy Of Modern Parenting Collection

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