*There was no significant difference between objects + actions and object-levels of recall, but both are significantly different from no training, no reminder and context-only at p < .01. Source: Sheffield (2004).

*There was no significant difference between objects + actions and object-levels of recall, but both are significantly different from no training, no reminder and context-only at p < .01. Source: Sheffield (2004).

television monitor was larger than the photographs. Third, it is possible that 18-month-olds understand the relationship between a video and an event even when the video does not include action information, but they do not appreciate the relationship between a photograph and a physical event.

Concerning context reinstatement, children who returned to the laboratory to watch an unrelated video produced no more target actions than children who did not return to the laboratory for reinstatement. Although context may be an important component in reinstating memories for young infants (Rovee-Collier et al., 1985), these results support research which suggests that context plays a less salient role for older infants (Barnat, Klein, & Meltzoff, 1996).

Effects of New Information in Video Reinstatement

In the previous experiment, we showed children video reminders that did not include action information. What would the effects be if we showed them video reminders with different actions? This is another way of varying the amount of information presented in a reminder. By including new information, we examined the effects of modifications in event information on reinstatement. This is an important manipulation to investigate because it may be more similar to the types of reminders that are encountered in real-world contexts. In this experiment, we tested whether reminders that contained some new information could successfully reinstate toddlers' event memories and whether new object or new action information would differentially affect children.

Results from our experiments using subset reenactment, subset modeling, and partial (object only) information indicated that toddlers' memories could be reinstated by exposure to partial event information. The partial information (objects only) experiment presented a scenario in which action information was eliminated, but the opposite scenario of eliminating object information, (e.g., bouncing an invisible ball) was not tested, primarily because the condition does not exist in the real world. However, substituting objects and actions do occur frequently in children's lives. For example, children may drink from a cup on one occasion, from a glass on another, and from a mug on a third occasion. Here, the act of drinking is the same but the objects are interchangeable. Conversely, children may put their doll to sleep in a stroller, but dress the doll on another occasion. Would children's memory be reinstated by performing multiple actions on a single object, or by performing the same action on multiple objects? Experiment 2 systematically changed action and object information during a reminder session in order to compare the effect of different types of information on children's recall.

Children viewed video reminders of a past event that contained (a) all original information (objects + actions), (b) original object information but new action information (new actions), (c) original action information but new object information (new objects), or (d) new action and new object information (new objects + new actions). Four groups of 18-month-olds were trained to perform novel activities during an initial training session, returned for a reminder session 10 weeks later, and were tested for recall one day later (see Table 9.7). The videos containing all original information were the same objects + actions videos used in the complete video condition in the previous study and showed an experimenter performing the same actions children had learned to perform on the same objects they had used. The new objects videos showed the experimenter performing the same actions using

Finding Your Confidence

Finding Your Confidence

Confidence is necessary to achieve success in life. Some effective confidence tips must be followed if you genuinely want to gain accomplishment in your work. So how do you build your confidence that will work for you in any situation? Initially, make an effort to spend time with confident people. Their vigor and strength is so stirring that you will surely feel yourself more powerful just by listening to their talk. To build confidence it is vital that you are in the midst of self-assuring people.

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