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do not understand the representational nature of photographs to the degree necessary to use photographs as reminders of past events. The result also suggest that children are able to understand the representational nature of videos before they can appreciate photographs as representations of the past. However, because photographs include less event information than videos, it is not clear if the paucity in event information, particularly the absence of action information, can account for their ineffectiveness as reminders. To examine effects of partial event information, 18-month-olds in this experiment (Sheffield, 2004, Experiment 1) participated in a reminder session in which they viewed a video containing only object information about the activities they had learned 10 weeks prior (the objects only video condition). The video showed an experimenter displaying all of the props used in the activities and commenting on the props, for example, "Look, here's Mickey Mouse. He has a shirt on. And shoes, too. He's my friend." However, actions associated with the objects actions were not depicted or described. Research with infants indicates that they required functional information (e.g., a moving mobile) in order for reinstatement to occur (Greco et al., 1990), but a study with 2%-year-olds showed that their memory for location information was reinstated simply by viewing objects without actions (Howe et al., 1992). Would 18-month-olds' performance be more similar to infants' or to 2%-year-olds?

Performance of children viewing the objects only reminder was compared to that of children who viewed a complete objects + actions video of the actions performed on the objects. In the objects + actions video, an experimenter picked up each of the props and demonstrated each action while narrating, for example, "Let's see this toy. It's Mickey Mouse. All you have to do is pull his string and he'll talk to you. Listen. Isn't that fun?" Recall was tested one day after the reminder session that took place in the laboratory. Children in the no reminder condition were trained to perform the activities, returned to the laboratory 10 weeks later and viewed an unrelated video, and were tested for recall 10 weeks later. Children in the reminder only condition visited the laboratory and played with the props, but were not shown the target actions. Ten weeks later they returned to laboratory to view the complete objects + actions video and they were tested for recall one day later (see Table 9.3).

Results of this experiment are displayed in Table 9.6. It was apparent that both types of video reminders, objects + actions and objects only, were effective in reinstating children's memories; children in these conditions produced significantly more target actions than children in all control conditions. This finding indicates that unlike infants, 18-month-olds can be reminded of past events by viewing objects associated with the event without functional (action) information. Thus, the lack of reinstatement effects in 18-month-olds found in the previous experiment using photograph reminders cannot be explained merely by the fact that photographs did not include information about the target actions. Rather, these results suggest that there are several differences between video and photographs that may contribute to children's difference in performance. First, it is possible that despite the fact that the video contained no target actions, it still provided children with more action information matching their original experience than the photographs did. Although target actions were not performed, the experimenter still moved around, retrieved toys, held them up, and so on. Second, the size of the

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