Maternal Correlates of Community Violence Exposure Mean Differences by Risk Levels

Means by levels of chronic community violence risk (using a median split) are presented in Table 22.2, adjusted for maternal level of education (Hollingshead education category = 1 lowest; 7 highest), and immigrant status (0 = U.S. born; 1 = foreign born). These covariates were used because they are associated with other independent variable in the study. Using maternal education and immigration status as covariates, ANCOVA analyses indicated that mothers in the high chronic community violence group reported higher partner violence to child, poorer health, higher distress, and more total internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, than those in the low chronic community violence group.

TABLE 22.2 Means by Level of Exposure Risk (n = 121)

Risk Factor

Low CCV High CCV

p level

Family violence

Partner violence to mother (CTS-R) Partner violence to child (CTS-R)

Finding Your Confidence

Finding Your Confidence

Confidence is necessary to achieve success in life. Some effective confidence tips must be followed if you genuinely want to gain accomplishment in your work. So how do you build your confidence that will work for you in any situation? Initially, make an effort to spend time with confident people. Their vigor and strength is so stirring that you will surely feel yourself more powerful just by listening to their talk. To build confidence it is vital that you are in the midst of self-assuring people.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment