Measuring Puberty

Self- and Parent-Report Measures commonly used measure that includes questions about growth spurt, body hair (not specifically pubic hair) and skin change in boys and girls, facial hair growth and voice change in boys, and breast development and menarche in girls, rated on 4-point scales ("no development" to "development already completed"; Petersen, Crockett, Richards, & Boxer, 1988). Correlations between physician Tanner ratings and self-reports of the PDS were between .61 and .67 (Brooks-Gunn et al., 1987).

When physician ratings are feasible, concerns have been raised regarding the validity of assessing breast development via visual inspection without palpation. The reason is that by visual inspection only, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish fat tissue from real breast tissue, especially in overweight girls. In the Herman-Giddens and colleagues (1997) study of pubertal development in girls in pediatric settings, the data only included ratings of breast development by visual inspection. However, 39% of physicians assessed breast stage by palpation, as well as visual inspection. Only 4% of the girls with breast development by inspection had no breast tissue by palpation, and only 1.7% of girls who had no breast development by inspection had breast tissue by palpation (Kaplowitz, Slora, Wasserman, Pedlow, & Herman-Giddens, 2001). In addition, findings showed that the occasional misclassification of breast tissue was just as likely to occur in thin girls as in overweight girls. This follow-up evaluation of the pediatric setting study supports Tanner staging via inspection of breast development as a valid method of assessment, regardless of whether the girls are overweight.

In regards to measuring height, self-report data are fairly accurate, even for young adolescents. Correlations between self- and actual reports of weight and height range between .75 and .98 (Brooks-Gunn et al., 1987; Goodman, Hinden, & Khandelwal, 2000). It is unusual for researchers to ask parents to measure their children at home, so to our knowledge, parental-reports of height have not been validated.

Finding Your Confidence

Finding Your Confidence

Confidence is necessary to achieve success in life. Some effective confidence tips must be followed if you genuinely want to gain accomplishment in your work. So how do you build your confidence that will work for you in any situation? Initially, make an effort to spend time with confident people. Their vigor and strength is so stirring that you will surely feel yourself more powerful just by listening to their talk. To build confidence it is vital that you are in the midst of self-assuring people.

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