Methods Sample

The data we discuss comes from a larger project focused on ethnic identity in middle childhood. The study involved both a cross-sectional and a longitudinal component. For the purposes of this chapter, only the first year cross-sectional data for the children whose parents also participated in the study was analyzed. Second- and fourth-grade children were recruited from New York City public schools. Children who wanted to participate took home a parent consent form which contained a description of the parent portion of the study. Researchers were able to contact and interview 151 of the 207 parents who gave consent1. The parent sample consisted primarily of mothers (82%), with the remainder of the sample being comprised of either fathers (12%), or grandparents (6%). The ethnic composition of the sample was diverse, with 21% third or later generation White European American children, 15% third or later generation Black American children, 25% second generation Russian children, 21% second generation Chinese children, 7% second generation Dominican children, and the remaining 11% with varied ethnic backgrounds. Thus, this research includes ethnic groups that have received little attention in the racial/ethnic socialization literature. Although we were unable to conduct detailed within group analyses due to the small number of respondents within any particular ethnic group2, the addition of groups such as White Russian immigrants to the racial/ethnic socialization literature is an important new direction that we hope to pursue.


Each child met individually with a trained interviewer at the child's school. At the beginning of each session children were reminded that they would be asked to answer questions about themselves and about their feelings. Children were assured that questions had no right or wrong answers and that they could discontinue participation at anytime. After completing the questionnaires children were thanked and given a small gift. Parents were contacted and interviewed by telephone. Parents were reminded that they would be asked about a variety of issues related to being a parent and that questions had no right or wrong answers. Trained interviewers administered the questionnaires in either English or in the parent's native language.

Finding Your Confidence

Finding Your Confidence

Confidence is necessary to achieve success in life. Some effective confidence tips must be followed if you genuinely want to gain accomplishment in your work. So how do you build your confidence that will work for you in any situation? Initially, make an effort to spend time with confident people. Their vigor and strength is so stirring that you will surely feel yourself more powerful just by listening to their talk. To build confidence it is vital that you are in the midst of self-assuring people.

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