In our work we have documented the importance of individual differences in emotionality and regulation in both positive and negative aspects of social functioning. We found that one can make more sense of the empirical data by considering moderational and mediational relations, as well as additive effects. For example, socially competence and problems behaviors often are predicted by both high regulation and low negative emotionality, although regulation is a better predictor of outcomes for children prone to negative emotion. We also have found that we can learn more by considering various types of regulation and emotional reactions and by using multiple reporters and a multi-method approach to data collection. Sometimes our facial or physiological data added information that was different than that provided by self- or other-report data; for example, relations between children's prosocial behavior and empathy-related responding have been much more consistent for these nonverbal measures than for self-report measures. Children may have difficulty assessing and reporting their internal states, and their reports may be contaminated by concerns about providing socially desirable responses. In general, each type of measure has different strengths and weaknesses, and provides somewhat different kinds of information. Nonetheless, facial or physiological measures may be especially useful for younger children because their self-reports often are not very predictive of outcomes. Overall, our data support the current emphasis on process (mediation) and moderating relations in the study of socioemotional development.

In regard to future directions, relatively little is known about the role of positive emotionality in the development and prediction of children's social competence and problem behaviors. It is likely that children prone to positive emotionality are relatively resilient and socially competent. In addition, it would be useful to further differentiate among various negative emotions when predicting outcomes for children (e.g., examine anxiety as well as anger and sadness). Anger/frustration and emotions such as sadness appear to be related somewhat differently to internalizing and externalizing problem

Anxiety and Panic Attacks

Anxiety and Panic Attacks

Suffering from Anxiety or Panic Attacks? Discover The Secrets to Stop Attacks in Their Tracks! Your heart is racing so fast and you don’t know why, at least not at first. Then your chest tightens and you feel like you are having a heart attack. All of a sudden, you start sweating and getting jittery.

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