Table 102

Types of Personal Narrative Elements and Proportion of Children Producing Each at Age 5

Narrative Element


Proportion of Children Producing Element at Age 5

Structure Opening Highpoint



Introduction of characters Location of action in a physical setting Location of action in a specific time


Intensifiers and delimiters Adjectives

Defeats of expectations Causality

Intentions and purposes Compulsions Reported speech Internal states Physical states Repetition for effect Hypothetical situations

Comparisons it all started when...

and Sarah Clark's mother got squirted with the firehose, but she had the equipment on and she didn't even get wet! and that's it she let Julie who is my friend and me go we went down to the Cape that night I put it under my pillow we watched fireworks really late it was a pretty costume

I didn't go to the real top of the mountain it wasn't fun because there were too many mosquitoes my mother and father were trying to get me to bed we had to sing a song

I said yes

I believed her it felt cold she did it again and again and again there was no gate so she could have fallen right down the stairs I'm smarter than my mother and my father.

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