Table 182

Measures and Constructs Used in the Student Questionnaire of the 4-H Study



Demographic information about youth and their families

Developmental assets and thriving indicators

Parental warmth

Parental monitoring Target based expectations

Self-perceived competencies and global self-worth

Peer support


Social responsibility

Ideology concerning community contribution

Barriers to participation in community activities

Healthy life style behaviors


Risk behaviors and delinquency

Regulation and goal-oriented behaviors

School and career aspirations/expectations

Thinking about the future

Pubertal development Psychosocial development

Participation in activities

Questions about sex, date of birth, race/ethnicity, household composition, number of years in current neighborhood, time spent without an adult present.

99 items from the Search Institutes' Profiles of Student Life—Attitudes and Behaviors Survey (PSL-AB) (Benson, Leffert, Scales, Blyth, 1998). Assesses internal and external developmental assets as well as thriving behaviors. Scale development for these 99 items is reported in Theokas et al. (2005).

Paternal and maternal subscales of parental warmth from Child's Report of Parenting Behaviors Inventory (Schludermann & Schludermann, 1970).

Parental monitoring scale (Small & Kerns, 1993)

Three subscales (Prosocial, Difficult, and Alienated) from the Target-Based Expectations Scale (Buchanan and Hughes, 2004). Assesses adolescents' beliefs about what behavior and traits will characterize them during adolescence.

Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1983) with six subscales was used to assess self-perceived academic, social, and physical competencies, as well as physical appearance, conduct/behavior adequacy, and self-worth.

Peer Support Scale (Armsden & Greenberger, 1987)

Eisenberg Sympathy Scale (Eisenberg et al., 1996) was used to assess the degree to which participants feel sorry for the distress of others.

Social Responsibility Scale (Greenberger & Bond, 1984) assesses adolescents' contribution to community and society.

Set of three open-ended questions developed for this study assessing whether or not youth think that positive development includes giving back to the world around them.

Six items associated with "Reasons for not participating in community activities" items set were used to assess the frequency of factors that may not allow or may impede children from participating in different activities. This items set was derived from the Teen Assessment (TAP) Survey Question Bank (Small, & Rodgers, 1995).

Five items associated with the "Healthy life style behavior" items set from TAP (Small, & Rodgers, 1995) were used to assess health-related behaviors such as exercising and sleeping.

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977)

Set of questions developed for this study to assess the frequency of substance use and frequency of delinquent behaviors. Questions were modified from items included in PSL-AB (Leffert, et al., 1998) and the Monitoring the Future Questionnaire (2000).

Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (SOC) Questionnaire (Freund & Baltes, 2002) was used to measure behaviors in selection of goals, acquisition and investment of goalrelevant means to achieve one's goals, and the use of alternative means to maintain a given level of functioning when specific goal-relevant means are not available anymore.

Four open-ended questions assessed the highest level of education adolescents' dream of completing, the highest level of education they believe they would actually complete, the job they would like to have as an adult, if they really thought they would attain the job, and if not what job they thought they would actually have.

Set of questions created for this study that assessed students' perception of the chances that some things (e.g. graduating from college, being healthy, being safe, etc.) are going to happen to them in future.

Puberty Development Scale (Petersen, Crockett, & Boxer, 1988)

Three subscales of Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (Rosenthal, Gurney, & Moore, 1981) were used to assess the resolution of the conflict associated with Erikson's developmental stages of early adolescence: Industry, Identity, and Intimacy.

Set of 21 questions created for the purpose of this study which assessed students' involvement in different clubs and groups.

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