Table 184

Measurement Model of the Five Cs and PYD

Standardized ML Residual

Estimate Error


1 Positive identity .91 .18

2 Self-worth .64 .50


3 Academic competence .51 .74

5 School engagement .72 .48

6 Social competence .46 .79


7 Personal values .76 .42

8 Social conscience .79 .37

9 Values diversity .70 .51

10 Interpersonal values and skills .67 .54


11 Sympathy: Disadvantaged .72 .48

12 Sympathy: Loneliness .81 .30

13 Sympathy: Unfortunate .74 .46

14 Sympathy: Pain .80 .37

15 Sympathy: Rejection .76 .43 Connection

16 Family .60 .64

17 School .71 .40

18 Community .44 .81

19 Peers .43 .81 PYD

1 Confidence .77 .41

2 Competence .82 .33

3 Character .82 .32

5 Connection .91 .18

by the Five Cs, and proposed a measure of contribution for fifth graders that could be analyzed in relation to PYD. Future reports from the 4-H Study, which will capitalize on the longitudinal design of this research, will extend model testing to include the relationship between assets, contribution, and the growth of the Five Cs.

Descriptive analyses were conducted first to determine whether there was systematic variation in the measures described above with selected youth and parent background variables: sex, race/ethnicity, and social class. Accordingly, correlations were computed among the youth and parent background variables, such as youth sex, youth race/ethnicity (recoded as European American/nonEuropean American), household income, mother's education, and number of children in the household. Youth sex was not correlated with the other variables. Household income and mothers' education were significantly and positively correlated and both were negatively correlated with the number of children in the household. Being European American was positively correlated with household income and mothers' education and negatively correlated with number of children in the home.

Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were computed for each scale score as the dependent variable and sex, race/ethnicity, household income, mother's education, and number of children in the home as a set of independent variables. In addition, two-way interactions between race/ethnicity and sex, and race/ethnicity and household income were tested as a second set of independent variables. Race/ethnicity was assessed through the use of three dummy variables (European American, African American, Latino/a vs. the reference category of all other designations). These analyses are based on participants whose parents answered the PQ, with a maximum sample size of 1,117.

Because there were 48 measures included in these analyses, the significance level was adjusted to control for Type I error. Starting with a /ยป-value of .05, we adjusted our p-value to be .001, using the standard correction of p-value/N of analyses (.05/48). Using this corrected pp-value, none of the 2-way interactions were significant. Number of children as a variable also was dropped from the analyses because it never added a significant proportion of variance after other variables were included.

Youth sex and household income were significantly related to the measures in expected ways: Girls have higher scores for, and household income is positively related to, most of the measures. Once household income is controlled for there remained a few significant relationships with race/ethnicity. The race/ethnicity effects that were present show that Latino/a fifth graders reported greater parent involvement, value interpersonal relationships and skills, valued diversity in their relationships, and thought about the future more than fifth graders from other groups. Compared to other youth, African American fifth graders reported lower support from peers, and engaged in more delinquent behaviors but reported greater risk avoidance. European American fifth graders reported higher perceived social and physical competence, and greater self-worth than youth in the other race/ethnicity groups. Future work will explore the complex relationships among these variables within our model of positive youth development.

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