Table 221

Quality of Parenting During a Toy Compliance Task

Scale Description

Power control

Low Frequency with which mother anticipates, encourages, bargains, or persuades to comply

Moderate Frequency with which mother physically assists, gives directions, asks for information, or tells not to do High Frequency with which mother demands attention, criticizes, threatens, physically restricts, punishes, taunts, looms, or pokes at

Task involvement

High Frequency with which mother acknowledges, asks for attention, communicates, plays, assists with tasks

Low Frequency with which mother ignores, moves away, or is lax

Affective quality

Positive Verbal or nonverbal expression of acceptance, pride, praise, or empathy

Negative Verbal or nonverbal expression of annoyance, non empathy, sadness, anger, or tension to violence receive maternal support (Fitzpatrick, 1993), while externalizing behavior problems may be predicted by family conflict (Fantuzzo, DePaola, Lambert, Martino, Anderson, & Sutton, 1991). To measure internalizing and externalizing behavior in the preschoolers, mothers of the 3-year-old children completed the 99-item Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 2-3 (CBC/2-3; Achenbach, Edel-brock, & Howell, 1987) while mothers for the 4-5 year olds completed the 118-item Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 4-18 years (CBCL; Achenbach, 1991). Both instruments are scored on a 3-point response scale. Internalizing and Externalizing behavior scales vary in the two versions: For the younger children, the Internalizing scale (Anxious/Depressed, Withdrawn) consists of 25 items (alpha = .83), while the Externalizing scale (Aggressive and Destructive Behavior) consists of 26 items (alpha = .89). For the older children, the Internalizing scale (Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Anxious/Depressed) and the Externalizing scale (Delinquent and Aggressive Behavior) consists both of 32 items (alphas .78 and .89, respectively). In this sample, child internalizing behavior scores were found elevated (T scores > 60) for 23% of the sample, while child externalizing behavior scores were found elevated for 31% of the sample, as compared with the national 10% prevalence rates in normative standardization samples.

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BiPolar Explained

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