Schedule of Conditions, Modeling Reinstatement Experiment





14-month-olds Train/Remind Train/No remind No train/Remind

18-month-olds Train/Remind Train/No remind No train/Remind

Day 1 Day 1

Day 1 Day 1 Day 1

Week 8 Week 8

Week 10 Week 10 Week 10

Week 8 Week 8 Week 8

Week 10 Week 10 Week 10

Source: Sheffield & Hudson (1994).

never trained to perform the activities, but viewed an experimenter perform three of the activities and then were tested on their ability to perform all of the activities 24 hours later. This condition provided a test of children's ability to perform the actions simply by imitating the experimenter.

We expected recall of modeled actions to be high for both the train/remind and no train/remind conditions. Results from deferred imitation research suggested that 14- and 18-month-olds would be able to remember actions seen the day before and reproduce them in a test session (Meltzoff, 1988a) which was equivalent to the experience of children in the no train/remind condition. However, the critical comparison was of children's recall of the unmodeled actions across conditions. If reinstatement occurred, recall should be high for unmodeled actions for children in the train/remind condition but not for children in the train/no remind condition.

Results showed clear evidence of reinstatement. As shown in Figure 9.3, recall of unmodeled activities was higher in the train/remind condition for both ages than in either of the other two conditions, indicating that a subset reminder effectively reinstated both 14- and 18-month-olds' memory for all of the activities. (As expected, recall of modeled activities was high for both the train/reminder and no train/remind conditions, indicating that children were capable of deferred imitation.). This indicated that partial reminders are effective in reinstating toddlers' memory for all of the event actions, even

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