Table

Schedule of Training, Reminder, and Recall Sessions for Reinstatement Experiments 1-5

Condition

Training

Reinstatement Type/Timing

Recall

Live reenactment Video reinstatement No reminder

Video reinstatement control Video training control

Video reinstate 10-10 Video training 10-10

Video reinstate 10-12

Video reinstatement Photo reinstatement Video training Photo training No reminder

Objects + actions Objects only No reminder Reminder only

Experiment 1: Effects of Video Reminders

Day 1 Reenact/2 weeks

Day 1 Video/2 weeks

Experiment 2: Immediate Recall After Video Reinstatement

Day 1 Video/10 weeks

Experiment 3: Delayed Recall After Video Reinstatement

Day 1 Video/10 weeks

Experiment 4: Effects of Video and Photograph Reminders

Day 1 Video/10 weeks

Day 1

Day 1

Photo/10 weeks Video/10 weeks Photo/10 weeks

Experiment 5: Objects Only Video Reminder Day 1 Full video/10 weeks

Day 1 Objects only video/10 weeks

12 weeks 12 weeks 12 weeks 12 weeks 12 weeks

10 week 10 weeks

12 weeks

10 weeks 10 weeks 10 weeks 10 weeks 10 weeks

10 weeks 10 weeks 10 weeks 10 weeks.

Source: Sheffield (in press), Sheffield & Hudson (2003).

viewed an unrelated video of a segment from Sesame Street. They also returned for testing 8 weeks later, 10 weeks after training.

A final group, the video training control condition provided a measure of children's ability to imitate the actions shown on the video when they had not been shown the activities in a live training session. These children did not participate in the training session, but simply watched the video reminder and were tested for recall 10 weeks later.

Results are displayed in Table 9.4. Both spontaneous production of target actions and cued production were analyzed separately. Cued production consisted of actions that were not performed by children in the first 5 minutes when they were allowed to interact with all props without any intervention., but were produced when the experimenter provided a nondirective verbal prompt ("What could we do with this toy?"). To show evidence of video reinstatement, children in the video reinstatement condition would have to show higher levels of recall than children in both all control conditions. As evident from Table 9.4, this was not the case. In both spontaneous and cued recall, children in the video reinstatement condition recalled no more activities than the children in the three control conditions. Children in the live reenactment condition showed higher levels of recall than all other groups, indicating once again, that reenactment was effective in sustaining children's recall.

Effects of Timing of Video Reminders

One explanation for why the video reminder was not effective was that it was administered relatively early in the recall time window. Reinstatement research with infants has found that reminders are most effective when administered late in the recall time window, close to the onset of forgetting. To examine timing effects, a second experiment examined the effects of a video reminder on 18-month-

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