The Mediational Role of Maternal Functioning

As compared to school-age children, the maternal role may be more salient during the preschool years because of fewer competing socialization influences, e.g. teachers and peers; therefore we focused on the role of maternal functioning as a crucial mediator in the linkage between exposure to community violence and child problems (Linares, Heeren, Bronfman, Zuckerman, Augustyn, & Tronick, 2001). There is substantial evidence from the developmental and family relations literature that mothers' own histories of interpersonal victimization (e.g., community or intra-family violence) are associated with global, and stress-specific symptoms of psychological distress. For example, victimized women (mothers) suffer from poor physical health (Koss, Woodruff, & Koss, 1990), increased distress, and show a higher risk for PTSD symptoms, as compared with nonvictimized women (Breslau, Glenn, Davis, Andreski, & Peterson, 1991; North, Smith, & Spitz-Nagel, 1994; Zlotnick, Warshaw, Shea, & Keller, 1997). We examined the mediational role of maternal functioning as a psychosocial mechanism by which community violence might 'enter' the child's world during the preschool years (see Figure 22.1). Using a multivariate methodology (structural equation modeling), we showed that maternal distress mediated, to a large extent, the association between exposure to community violence and behavior problems. That is, for the preschool child, the mother's own psychological distress added a considerable extra risk to her own child's distress.

In a series of structural equation modeling model (see Figure 22.2), we show a nonsignificant direct effect of community violence on preschool problems (standardized path coefficient = .10 p NS) when maternal distress is entered into the model. In the final model, exposure to community violence (standardized path coefficient = .30 p < .006) and exposure to family violence (standardized path coefficient = .39 p < .005) impact directly on maternal distress, and in turn, maternal distress impact on preschool problems (standardized path coefficient =.66 p < .001).

Finding Your Confidence

Finding Your Confidence

Confidence is necessary to achieve success in life. Some effective confidence tips must be followed if you genuinely want to gain accomplishment in your work. So how do you build your confidence that will work for you in any situation? Initially, make an effort to spend time with confident people. Their vigor and strength is so stirring that you will surely feel yourself more powerful just by listening to their talk. To build confidence it is vital that you are in the midst of self-assuring people.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment