The Parenting Study

In the Parenting Study we focused on the role of the quality of parenting as a potential contributor to child negative outcomes (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems).

Using the original sample of the Boston Community Violence Project, we analyzed, for the very first time, mother-child videotapes in the home available for 76% (n = 121/160 dyads) of the subjects. Videotapes were not available because of equipment problems, dyads speaking a different language than English or Spanish, or refusals. The subsample in the Parenting Study reflects the characteristics of the original sample: Families resided in a wide range of housing arrangements (such as publicly operated housing complexes, government subsidized housing apartments, or private homes), with about half residing in nongovernment subsidized homes. Subjects were predominantly from low socio-economic status and from ethnic minority background. Mothers were of African descent (71%) or Latino (22%). Sixty-three percent of the mothers who were born in the United States, while the remaining immigrated about 11 years ago from a myriad of 21 different countries reflecting the international composition of Boston residents. Mothers were in their early thirties. Close to half (42%) completed high school or a General Educational Development program (GED) while 26% had less than a high school diploma and 32% had post high school education. Mother's were employed outside of the home (52%) and some were attending school (20%); 45% received Aid to Families with Dependent Children; 40% were single head of households; and 69% were currently involved with a partner. Mothers had an average of 2.7 (SD = 1.5) children. The children were between 3 and 5 years of age (M = 4.02; SD = .94) and participated in a variety of day care arrangements; 48% were girls.

Finding Your Confidence

Finding Your Confidence

Confidence is necessary to achieve success in life. Some effective confidence tips must be followed if you genuinely want to gain accomplishment in your work. So how do you build your confidence that will work for you in any situation? Initially, make an effort to spend time with confident people. Their vigor and strength is so stirring that you will surely feel yourself more powerful just by listening to their talk. To build confidence it is vital that you are in the midst of self-assuring people.

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