Natural Childbirth Options
Growth rate birth rate - death rate 1.2 2.2 - 1.0 Prior to the Industrial Revolution, both birth rates and death rates were high in most human populations. Although women gave birth to many children, relatively few children lived to adulthood. The rapid increase in population growth rate that occurred in the eighteenth century resulted from an equally rapid decrease in infant mortality (death rate of infants and children) in industrializing countries. New knowledge of how deadly infectious diseases were transmitted, and thus how they could be prevented, greatly reduced the number of children who suffered from these illnesses. With birth rates high and death rates declining, the population growth rate increased. Not long after death rates declined in these countries, birth rates followed suit, lowering growth rates again. Countries that began the process of industrialization in the eighteenth century, and countries that now have a high per capita income relative to other countries, are...
Medicines are part of our way of life from birth, when we enter the world with the aid of drugs, to death where drugs assist (most of) us to depart with minimal distress and perhaps even with a remnant of dignity. In between these events we regulate our fertility, often, with drugs. We tend to take such usages for granted.
Others, theorists, notably Kopp (1982) and Block and Block (1980), have made distinctions between emotion control and emotion regulation. Kopp (1982), for example, discussed self-control and self-regulation as stages in the child's development of behavior regulation. In the stage of self-control, the child has the ability to comply with the caregiver's demands and directives in the absence of the caregiver. Though emitted by the child, the behavior is rigid, conforming to the original directive. In contrast, the stage of self-regulation involves the flexible guiding of behavior. The child's behavior at this point is actively and flexibly adjusted to meet the demands of new situations. We concur with this distinction between control and regulation however, we do not see these as developmental stages but, rather, as a continuum of regulation which is a function both of development and individual differences among children. While for Kopp (1982) the stage of self-control is not...
Prospective observational cohort studies were quickly made in antenatal clinics where women had yet to give birth though few, they provided evidence incriminating thalidomide. The worst had happened, a trivial new drug was the cause of the most grisly disaster in the short history of modern scientific drug therapy. Many thalidomide babies died, but many live on with deformed limbs, eyes, ears, heart and alimentary and urinary tracts.15
With reporting the first human blood transfusion. In 1818, Dr. Blundell gave blood to a patient who was bleeding heavily after giving birth, using blood from her husband. Over the next several years, Dr. Blundell did ten more blood transfusions, and five of them helped his patients.
The possibility of biological immortality rests on two premises (1) Anyone able to perpetually regenerate, reinvigorate, and replace aged or diseased parts of their body could live in the same body from birth to eternity with their persona intact. (2) A clone of one's own cells could serve as a source of embryonic stem cells able to support cellular renewal.
Evolution and progression of atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries of children and young adults
In an autopsy study of the evolution of atherosclerotic lesions in young people, we obtained the coronary arteries and aortas of 1160 male and female subjects who died between full-term birth and age 29 years. In this article, we report the light and electron microscopic observations of the coronary arteries of 565 of these subjects in which we fixed the coronary arteries by perfusion with glutaraldehyde under pressure. From birth, the intima was always thicker in the half of the coronary artery circumference opposite the flow-divider wall of a bifurcation (eccentric thickening). In cases where we found lipid in the intima, there was always more in eccentric thickening. Isolated macrophage foam cells in the intima of infants were the earliest sign of lipid retention. These cells occurred in 45 of infants in the first 8 months of life but decreased subsequently. At puberty, more substantial accumulations of macrophage foam cells reappeared in more children. Foam cells were now...
Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are characterized clinically by a progressive loss of muscle power brought about by the primary degeneration of lower or upper motor neurons or both. In lower MNDs, the weakness is associated with muscle wasting, fasciculation, hypo-tonia, and a decrease or loss of tendon reflexes. In upper MNDs, the weakness is associated with spasticity, hyperactive reflexes, and Babinski sign. Some diseases are sporadic, and some inherited. Individuals of all ages from birth to late midlife can be affected. The diagnosis depends primarily on the symptoms and signs. An elec-tromyogram (EMG) showing a denervation pattern confirms degeneration of the lower motor neurons.
In another model, murine MCP-1 was expressed under the control of a rat insulin promoter (RIP-MCP-1 transgenic mice) (57). From birth these mice displayed a mononuclear insulitis consisting almost entirely of F4 80+ monocytes with very small numbers of CD4+, CD8+, or B220+ cells. (Although B220 is also expressed on NK cell surfaces, these are unlikely to be NK cells because they were not stained by the NK marker, NK1.1.) Notably, despite an impressive infiltrate, these mice never became diabetic, suggesting that MCP-1 can attract monocytes efficiently but cannot activate them to engage in tissue destruction.
Purulent leptomeningitis occurs at all ages from birth through old age. The age-related preferences of common bacteria are listed in Table 6.2. The onset is sudden, with fever, headaches, photophobia, and nuchal rigidity. Severe cases are complicated by an altered state of consciousness, seizures, cranial nerve deficits, and focal neurologic symptoms and signs. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shows elevated cell count, chiefly with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PNLs), increased protein levels, and decreased glucose levels. The causative microorganisms are identified in the sediment of the CSF using Gram stain and by culturing the CSF and blood. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunologic techniques identify the bacteria within hours of onset.
In one sense, spatial-graphic representations are easy to interpret. Even infants are able to extract denotative meaning from motivated graphic representations relatively effortlessly. However, just as understanding or producing single words or even short sentences is not tantamount to mastering all that language offers, so, too, identifying the referential meaning of graphic representations is not tantamount to understanding the rich cognitive or expressive meanings that graphic images provide. I have proposed a more complete interpretation of what it means to understand graphic representations as summarized in Table 12.1. With this more differentiated conception of understanding, it is easy to appreciate the relevance of the range of perceptual, cognitive, and social processes encompassed by the Embedded Model shown in Figure 12.3. In concert, these diverse competencies and developmental processes set the stage for going beyond dichotomous questions and theories that have plagued...
Although the reported incidence of progeria in the United States is about 1 in 8 million births (1), the true population incidence may be somewhat higher, as not all cases are reported. Based on our experience, we estimate that about 50 of all cases in the United States are reported, which leads to an estimate of incidence of 1 in 4 million. This would still lead to a much higher expected consanguinity frequency (45 ) than the low frequency that is seen in families in which progeria occurs. This lack of consanguinity suggests progeria is unlikely to be a rare recessive condition.
It would seem that from birth we are busily interpreting the information that we receive via our sense organs, including proprioception and internal sensations. The information is focused through the attention that we pay to it. There are various models of this process. One is called the information-processing model (Case 1985). Another is the Piagetian model based on the work of Piaget who looked at the ways that the developing infant, child, adolescent, adult create representations about the world he or she lives in (1983). The
The balance among safety, efficacy, and toxicity is a major concern in the decision to engage a pediatric subject in drug research. From birth through adolescence, a child is constantly changing, both physiologically and metabolically. These dynamic changes contribute to the increased susceptibility of these individuals to certain types of undesirable effects from drugs. Consider the following examples.
Hepatitis B is the second most common type of viral hepatitis in the United States, and it is usually sexually transmitted. It also may be acquired par-enlerally. such as by intravenous drug use. and during birth from chronically infected mothers. The outcome depends on the age at which the infection was acquired. Up to 90 of infected newborns develop chronic hepatitis B infection. which places the affected infant at significant risk of hepatocellular carcinoma later in adulthood. For individuals infected later in life, approximately 95 of patients will recover completely without sequelae. Between 5 and 10 of patients will develop chronic hepatitis, which may progress to cirrhosis. A chronic carrier state may be seen in which the virus continues to replicate, but it does not cause irreversible hepatic damage in the host.
Where do these prototypes come from According to the empiricist view, they come from past experience. But that answer will not account for the innate abilities of most species, including humans, to perceive certain objects from birth,18 or for their sensitivity to stimuli, such as sexual cues, at particu lar periods and without prior experience. The evidence is overwhelming that many mental structures are innate, including those on which we base our perceptual world. Although we can generate new cognitive structures of certain types, we seem to be born with the ability to represent knowledge only in particular ways and we apparently cannot think outside those limits.19 All this suggests that the brain is replete with structure from birth so at least some of this structure and the information it stores can be perceived from within, by direct experience.
May be genetically heterogeneous, since a mutation in the KCNQ1 gene was found in a patient with SQTS (Bellocq et al. 2004). Functional studies of the KCNQ1-V307L mutant linked to SQTS (alone or co-expressed with the wildtype channel, in the presence of KCNE1) revealed a pronounced shift of the half-activation potential and an acceleration of the activation kinetics, leading to a gain of function in IKs (Bellocq et al. 2004). Preliminary data suggest that quinidine may effectively prolong the Q-T interval and ventricular effective refractory period (ERP) in patients with SQTS, thereby preventing ventricular arrhythmias. This is particularly important because SQTS patients are at risk of sudden death from birth, and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation is not feasible in very young children (Gaita et al. 2004).
Melena refers to the passage of black, tarry (sticky and shiny) stools. Tests for occult blood are positive. Melena signifies the loss of at least 60 ml of blood into the gastrointestinal tract (less in infants and children), usually from the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. Less commonly, when intestinal transit is slow, the blood may originate in the jejunum, ileum, or ascending colon. In infants, melena may result from swallowing blood during the birth process.
In the pediatric age group, intracranial tumors are the most common tumors after leukemias. They are a major cause of cancer-related death in children. They may present at any time from birth on. Fetal tumors can be detected by the third trimester using ultrasonogra-phy investigations are usually prompted by a sudden increased rate of uterine growth.
But by the 1970s patients were starting to vote with their feet again, in both Europe and the United States. The complaint voiced by 1970s radical authors such as Ivan Illich, Fritjof Capra, and Rene Dubos was that orthodox medicine was still too uncaring and 'invasive', too narrow and mechanistic, and still far too drug-based. It was failing to cope with chronic disease, and it was certainly failing to deal with the 'whole person' the six- to seven-minute average consultation time was a particular complaint. At the same time women's liberation groups were pioneering medical 'self-help' through feminist medical advice books, self-help videos, classes, and communal group analysis which all proved very effective in launching the widespread natural birth movement (which included the use of massage and warm-water birthing pools, a throwback to ancient Methodist techniques).41 Progressive doctors responded quickly to these critiques. In the United States a pressure group of doctors working...
The pelvis demonstrates a large number of sex differences associated principally with two features first the heavier build and stronger muscles in the male, accounting for the stronger bone structure and better defined muscle markings in this sex second, the comparatively wider and shallower pelvic cavity in the female, correlated with its role as the bony part of the birth canal.
The findings of early categorization are significant because they suggest that young infants divide the world of objects appropriately into perceptual cluster representations that later come to have conceptual significance for adults. That is, the category distinctions made by quite young infants are often the same distinctions that later in life come to have a conceptual nature. As such, this early veridical parsing of the world should permit infants to begin to incorporate new nonobvious knowledge into category representations initially constructed on the basis of perceptual experience. For example, if young infants possess abilities to form a category representation for cats (e.g., one that is based on observable surface attributes including overall body shape, parts, markings, head and face information, communicative sounds, and motion), then more abstract information that is learned later (e.g., that cats have the verbal label or name cat, are meat eaters, possess cat DNA, give...
Most studies have shown low-to-moderate correlations (.20 to .60) between HOME scores during the first 2 years of life and later tests of intelligence and achievement (Bradley & Caldwell, 1976b, 1984b Bradley, Caldwell, & Rock, 1988 Coons, Fulker, DeFries. & Plomin, 1990 Elardo et al., 1975 Gottfried & Gottfried, 1984, 1988 Johnson, Breckenbridge, McGowan, 1984 Siegel, 1982 Stevens & Bakeman, 1985 Wilson & Matheny, 1983). However, in a study of Mexican American children (Johnson et al., 1984), correlations were negligible for lower-middle-class Costa Ricans, they were somewhat lower than correlations observed in most other groups, but still significant. The studies may indicate that different relations obtain for Latino populations, but the differences are difficult to interpret given measures of intellectual competence originally were constructed using Hispanics (Super & Harkness, 1986). The contributions of culture, social status, and recency of immigration to the observed disparate...
Current perspectives acknowledge the infant as a creature prepared from birth to begin processing and organizing incoming information in meaningful ways (e.g., Mandler, 1992 Bauer, Wiebe, Carver, Waters, & Nelson, 2003). In stark contrast, early developmental theorists perceived the capacity of infants to make sense of the environment and to meaningfully encode events as quite impoverished (James, 1950 Mandler, 1992). From this standpoint, early experiences would have little chance of enduring in memory for later conscious retrieval. Thus, most early work on infant memory development focused exclusively on short-term processes, with retention intervals under several minutes (Bornstein & Sigman, 1986 McCall, 1979 Werner & Perlmutter, 1979). Modern methodologies created for the study of infants and toddlers have revealed relatively more sophisticated cognition during these early periods, and have inspired researchers to rethink the potential for early long-term memory (e.g.,...
The progestogens used (alone) orally include norgestrel, levonorgestrel, ethynodiol, norethisterone, desogestrel (e.g. Noriday, Micronor, Femulen). Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) (t 28 h) is a sustained-release (aqueous suspension) deep i.m. injection given 3-monthly. When injected between day 1 and day 5 of the menstrual cycle, contraception starts immediately. If given after day 5, a barrier contraceptive is needed for 7 days. Depo-Provera can be started within 5 days of childbirth or abortion however, starting it so soon after childbirth may cause heavy bleeding and so waiting until 6 weeks postpartum is probably better.
The most common pathogens of congenital and neonatal infections are viruses and the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii. Bacteria and the spirochete Treponema pallidum are less common. (See Chapter 6 on infectious diseases.) Fetuses are infected transplacentally, and neo-nates are infected during delivery through an infected birth canal or by breast feeding with infected milk. The maternal infection may be acutely acquired or more often results from reactivation of a clinically latent infection. Infections during the first trimester produce the most widespread injuries, notably inflammatory destructive lesions in the brain, sensory organs, and viscera, and malformations (Table 14.4). Among the major malformations are hydranencephaly, polymicro-gyria, hydrocephalus, and microcephaly. The neurologic sequelae of infections acquired later in gestation are mental retardation visual, auditory, and motor deficits and seizures. Maternal infections are diagnosed by sero-logic tests, and fetal...
These maneuvers are important adjuncts to palpation of the pregnant abdomen beginning at 28 weeks of gestation. They help determine where the fetus is lying in relation to the woman's back (longitudinal or transverse), what end of the fetus is presenting at the pelvic inlet (head or buttocks), where the fetal back is located, how far the presenting part of the fetus has descended into the maternal pelvis, and the estimated weight of the fetus. This information is necessary to assess the adequacy of fetal growth and the probability of successful vaginal birth. Common deviations include breech presentation (the fetal buttocks presenting at the outlet of the maternal pelvis) and absence of the presenting part well down into the maternal pelvis at term. Neither situation necessarily precludes vaginal birth. The most serious findings are a transverse lie close to term and slowed fetal growth that could represent intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).
The phylogenetic basis of spontaneous imitation is a reasonable hypothesis. However, as Epstein notes, at least three aspects of the experiments suggest that some environmental experience is also necessary. The birds were raised in a colony and may have had social interactions that contributed to imitative performance. Pigeons who are isolated from birth may show smaller effects of exposure to a model (May & Dorr, 1968). In addition, the effects of food reinforcement may have contributed to the results. Although observers were never directly reinforced with food for imitation, they did see the models eat from the feeder. In fact, Epstein remarked that occasionally the naive bird would thrust its head into the feeder hole when the model did, even though it did not receive food. Finally, only one object was present in the right and left sides of the chamber. If three objects were available, would the observer peck or pull the one the model did, without training Each of these aspects...
Animals as they progress from birth to old age. Differential prenatal and early life experiences of animals have the potential to result in modifications in the development of specific tissues 1 and would likely impact the appearance of age-related pathologies and potentially unique aging trajectories and lifespan. Other issues, including specific diets, the presence of underlying pathology, and strain differences, are likely to be important sources of experimental variance. Experimental confounds related to methodology including, but not limited to, differential effects of anesthesia, fixation methods, tissue atrophy, the absence of rigorous stereological methods for counting blood vessels, and the consequences of poor categorization of cells and or blood vessels by region, size, and function have received little attention. These and related experimental caveats undoubtedly have the potential to alter experimental outcomes and hence produce artificial, exaggerated, or attenuated...
The neonate's ability to suckle effectively at the breast takes time and practice. For the first few feedings, even in full-term infants, suckling is usually disorganized. Drugs given to the mother during childbirth can also inhibit early suckling. Usually, after several attempts, the infant latches onto the breast and begins to suckle vigorously and effectively. These first feedings are critical because they imprint a suckling pattern that tends to be repeated in subsequent feedings. A healthy infant unaffected by labor or birth analgesia or anesthesia should be allowed to demonstrate hunger before being offered the breast. Practicing lactation consultants are fully aware that it is difficult, if not impossible to make a baby breastfeed when he is in a deep
Fig. 2 Kaplan-Meier cumulative probability of first cardiac events from birth through age 40 years for subjects with mutations in pore (n 34), N-terminus (n 54), and C-terminus (n 91) regions of the hERG channel. The curves are significantly different (p 0.0001, log-rank), with the difference caused mainly by the high first-event rate in subjects with pore mutations. (Reprinted with permission from Moss et al. 2002) Fig. 2 Kaplan-Meier cumulative probability of first cardiac events from birth through age 40 years for subjects with mutations in pore (n 34), N-terminus (n 54), and C-terminus (n 91) regions of the hERG channel. The curves are significantly different (p 0.0001, log-rank), with the difference caused mainly by the high first-event rate in subjects with pore mutations. (Reprinted with permission from Moss et al. 2002)
Controversy over artificial means of controlling human life generally settles on two problems (which may be one and the same) objections to human experimentation and to treating human beings as means to ends (objectification).14 I can offer no solution to the problem posed by human experimentation without indulging in self-contradiction, since achieving immortality will inevitably require human experimentation. I would imagine that, contrary to the experience with other forms of cyborgian birthing, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, experiments with other animals will precede human experimentation.15 Current law would seem to preclude the possibility of using human beings in experimentation on immortality until research on other animals has demonstrated the efficacy and safety of the procedure.
A 28-year-old housewife presents to your office for a 6-week-postpartum checkup. She complains of fatigue greater than expected and palpitations. Her hair is falling out as well. She denies sadness or depression symptoms. Before this, she had not had any medical problems. She is breast-feeding her child and is not on any birth control. She had her first period since giving birth last week. A pregnancy test done in the office is negative. What is your most likely diagnosis
Usually little attention is given to prenatal assessment of the breast and nipples because of Western cultural inhibitions about the breast and lack of recognition of its importance. As a consequence, after giving birth, mothers may experience feeding difficulties that could have been prevented. Nurses and lactation consultants practicing as primary caregivers are the ideal people to perform a prenatal breast assessment, particularly because physicians (especially males) are often reluctant to do so.
42.1 A 34-year-old woman states that she has had no menses since she had a uterine curettage and cone biopsy of the cervix 1 yr previously. Since those surgeries, she complains of severe, crampy lower abdominal pain similar to labor pain for 5 days of each month. Her basal body temperature chart is biphasic. rising 1 F for 2 weeks of every month. Which of the following is the most likely etiology of secondary amenorrhea
International organisations (UNO, FAO, WHO, UNICEF, World Bank) have established methods of evaluating available foods, the consumption of food, and nutritional status by taking into consideration parameters of agricultural production, anthropometrical measurements, birth-rate, mortality and morbidity rates, and clinical, immunolog-ical, haematological, and biochemical parameters. Mothers may give birth to underweight babies. The situation is particularly serious in sub-Saharan Africa, where acute malnutrition occurs more often, while the majority of chronically hungry people is in Asia and the Pacific area. Teenage mothers and their babies are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition. Girls generally grow in height and weight until the age of 18 and do not achieve peak bone mass until about 25. The diet of a chronically hungry adolescent girl cannot support adequately both her own growth and that of her foetus. Malnourished young women often give birth to underweight babies.
In women, most often a weakness of the pelvic floor with inadequate muscular support of the bladder and proximal urethra and a change in the angle between the bladder and the urethra. Suggested causes include childbirth and surgery. Local conditions affecting the internal urethral sphincter, such as postmenopausal atrophy of the mucosa and urethral infection, may also contribute.
The Apgar score is the key initial assessment of the baby immediately after birth. It contains five components for classifying the newborn's neurologic recovery from the birth process and immediate adaptation to extrauterine life. Score each newborn according to the following table, at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Scoring is based on a 3-point scale (0, 1, or 2) for each component. Total scores may range from 0 to 10. Scoring may continue at 5-minute intervals until the score is greater than 7. If the 5-minute Apgar score is 8 or more, proceed to a more complete examination.
Moreover medicine became more not less dangerous over time nineteenth-century hospitals killed mothers in childbirth because doctors (trained to consider themselves scientists) unwittingly spread infections from mother to mother on their hands. Mothers and infants had been much safer in previous centuries when their care had been entrusted to informally trained midwives. For 2,400 years patients have believed that doctors were doing them good for 2,300 years they were wrong.
The main topic Walker addresses in Possessing the Secret of Joy is how the female genital mutilation ritual in a specific African tribe affects the mind, body, and spirit of its bicultural protagonist, her family, and her countries. However, it is necessary to note that Walker's literary representation of FGM applies to only a small percentage of African tribes and that the surgical ritual is conducted in many different ways, in hospitals as well as in huts, for many different reasons. For these general purposes, the procedure is more descriptively called female genital cutting (FGC) because, by degree, it ranges from a slight ceremonial nicking of the clitoris to draw blood to the more radical excision (removing some or all of the outer genitals) and infibulation (sewing up the vagina and leaving a small opening for urination and menstrual flow). The ritual's end result spans the gamut from a proud youth who has experienced a spiritual initiation into adulthood and elevated tribal...
Because you'll want to measure the infant's best performance, checking milestones is best achieved at the end of the interview, just before the examination. This fun and games interlude also enhances cooperation during the examination. Experienced clinicians can weave the developmental examination into the other parts of the examination. The graph at the bottom of p. 628 shows some key physical motor, cognitive language, and social emotional milestones during the first year of life. The standard for measuring developmental milestones throughout infancy and childhood is the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST). The DDST is designed to detect developmental delays in personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, language, and gross motor dimensions from birth through 6 years of age.
Caligiuri and Mayer23 reported on leukemic pregnant patients treated with cytarabine as either a single agent or in combination. Eighteen of these women gave birth to normal offsprings, and five pregnancies ended in elective abortions. Another AML patient was 20 weeks pregnant when treated with cytarabine and daunoru-bicin she received reinduction with mitoxantrone and cytarabine. She subsequently underwent consolidation therapy with one cycle of cytarabine and idarubicin between weeks 29 and 30. Two days later she delivered a stillborn but phenotypically normal infant.30
Possessing the Secret of Joy is a vehicle for Walker's own feminist agenda. By putting Tashi into a particular context, Walker is able to develop her human rights and health issues as well as argue for political change. Tashi's story becomes part of Walker's own. For instance, the autobiographical elements are clear when Walker refers to FGM as sexual blinding, a reference to her brothers shooting her in the eye and swearing her to silence. Both Walker and her character Tashi aborted a pregnancy and bridged cultures in search of an identity. They are storytellers whose myths teach lessons, filling the novel with stories of repression, of struggles, and eventually of self-actualization. Walker's strong female character, Adam's lover Lisette (Walker's alter ego), is an altruistic white woman who, as the voice of reason, contrasts with the emotional Tashi. As a youth Lisette had visited Olinka with a church youth group, and her family were colonists in Algeria. As an adult she is a high...
Of interest here however is the way the broad, diverse and long history associated with the 'politics of women's health' has informed and continues to influence the growth and character of a variety of different patient organisations and movements (Epstein 2007). The feminist identity politics and grass roots activism of the 1970s and 1980s brought to the fore a range of health issues relating to women including contraception, abortion and child birth. The most recent, vocal and public manifestation of women's activism around health has been in relation to breast cancer (Weisman 1998 Morgen 2002). The
During the early part of this century, childbirth moved from home or midwife-attended births largely to hospitals, where a birthing woman was separated from her family and attended by hospital staff. During the middle part of this century, hospital routines and the use of general anesthesia during labor and delivery separated mother and infant much of the time in the early postpartum period. Bottle-feedings by nursery
The NICHD Study of Early Child Care is a longitudinal study in which Huston is an investigator following 1,364 children from birth through adolescence, and includes observations of whatever child-care settings parents selected for their children. Participants were recruited from hospitals located at 10 sites across the United States in 1991. Interviews with parents, evaluations of children, and observations of both parent-child interaction and children's child-care or school settings were conducted when children were 6, 15, 24, 36, and 54 months old and in first grade. Measures included maternal education (in years), child's race and ethnicity, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting quality scores derived from videotaped observations of mother-child interactions, and observed home
The pathophysiology of truncus arteriosus is that of a large left to right shunt at a ventricular or great artery level, with a high ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (Qp Qs). Systemic pressures usually exist in the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries. There is increased pulmonary vascular resistance (2 to 4 Wood units m2) from birth. Rarely does truncal valve stenosis or a restrictive ventricular septal defect modify this hemodynamic pattern. Through infancy, pulmonary vascular resistance increases progressively with a gradual decrease in arterial oxygen saturation.4
Incidence and survival in this chapter are presented for 15- to 29-year-olds, with comparisons to the age groups 0-15 years and 30-44+ years, as appropriate. For some analyses the entire age range from birth to 85+ years is included. The absence of data in any figure or table within this chapter means that too few cases were available for analysis it does not mean that the rate or change in rate was zero.
Incidence of all invasive cancer in the United States from 1975 to 2000 as a function of 5-year age intervals from birth to 85+ years. The ordinate is linear in A and logarithmic in B. The straight line in B indicates that the incidence is exponentially correlated with age from 10 to 55 years, and throughout the adolescent and young adult years. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), 1975-2000 Figure 1.1 shows the incidence of all invasive cancer in the United States from 1975 to 2000 as a function of 5-year age intervals from birth to 85+ years. The straight line in Fig. 1.1B, which is presented on a logarithmic scale, indicates that the incidence increases exponentially with age from 10 to 55 years, and throughout the adolescent and young adult years, which suggests that a common age-dependent oncogenic process is active, such as telomerase shortening, or that the mutation-to-malignancy rate constantly increases with age.
Figure 1.2 shows the incidence of all invasive cancer in the United States from 1975 to 2000 as a function of 5-year age intervals from birth to 85+ years separately for females (Fig. 1.2A) and males (Fig. 1.2B). Females demonstrate the exponential risk pattern from age 10 to 50 years. Males have a third peak that appears during the young adult age range, at approximately Incidence of all invasive cancer in the United States from 1975 to 2000 as a function of 5-year age intervals from birth to 85+ years among females (A) and males (B), each expressed on semi-logarithmic coordinates. SEER, 1975-2000
Suppression of Autoimmune Disease by Regulatory Cells from Donors with or Without the Relevant SelfAg
In view of differential suppression of autoimmune prostatitis (AIP) and autoimmune thyroiditis by T cells from Ag-positive vs Ag-negative cell donors (described below), how do we explain their equal suppression of AOD Our interpretation is that even if the regulatory capacities of male and female CD4+CD25+ T cells for AOD suppression are different, they are equalized when the cells encounter the endogenous ovarian Ag in the young d3tx host. Indeed, we have shown that ovarian Ags (mater and ZP3) are expressed from birth and have the capacity to stimulate T cells on day 3 (Alard et al. 2001). This is also exemplified by the process of diversified autoAb response that depends on de novo B cell response to endogenous ovarian Ag. Immunized female mice with a ZP3 peptide that contains T but not native B epitope (in CFA) elicited Ab response to a distant native ZP3 B cell epitope within 7 days, 2 days after detectable response to the ZP3 T cell epitope (Lou et al. 1996). Other examples of...
This modified enzyme, termed lactose synthase, is found in animals only in mammary gland, where it synthesizes the major sugar of milk. The polypeptide that modifies the specificity of the enzyme is the mammary gland protein oi lactalbumin. Synthesis of ot-lactalbumin is activated hormonally in mothers shortly after giving birth. The protein combines with preexisting galactosyltransferase, changes its specificity, and activates the large amount of lactose synthesis needed for milk production.
Fat has been thought of as a harmless substance, intended for the storage of energy, and historically, this has been the case. When human society was based on hunting and gathering there were periods of the year when individuals would deposit fat as a reserve for the winter months. During other periods of the year, when food was plentiful, the fat reserves were depleted and the individual's physique became slimmer. Women, during their reproductive years, store fat in preparation for childbirth, but again this deposit was transitory, so that men and women cycled between robust and lean physiques. However, in recent times, there has been a clear trend toward the deposition of permanent
In a review of field studies conducted to identify the effect of breastfeeding on childhood diarrhea in Bangladesh, children partially breastfed had a greater risk of diarrhea than had those who were exclusively breastfed (Glass & Stoll, 1989). Although breastmilk's protective effect is most easily demonstrated in areas of poverty and malnutrition, evidence of this protection is worldwide. In China, Chen, Yu, and Li (1988) showed that compared with breastfed infants, artificially-fed infants are more likely to be admitted to the hospital for gastroenteritis and other conditions. In the Cebu region of the Philippines, giving water, teas, and other liquids to breastfed babies doubled or tripled the likelihood of diarrhea (Popkin et al., 1990). Young Nicaraguan children who develop rotavirus infections very early are partially protected by specific IgA antibodies in their mothers' milk. Rotavirus in stool samples correlated significantly with the...
'Biological cleansing' is a biotechnology of perpetual motion, common to all species. Bio-perpetual motion runs on its own time. As in all other plants and animals our bodies respond obediently to the macrobiological rhythms of our solar and lunar 'body clocks', that prompt us through the years, months, days, and hours, ordaining the time to eat, sleep, give birth, grow, or die.1 Human body-cleansing also has its own physical calendars and clocks. Powerful daily circadian cycles regulate our total energy flow and all the major bodily processes, particularly the arrival and passing of the menses, the fetus, and the faeces. Micro-second cellular activity is constant but it is when we are asleep, or resting, that microbiological 'cleansing' can take place relatively uninterrupted. It is no accident that we cleanse ourselves in the morning from the evacuated remnants of our night's sleep just as we cleanse ourselves in the evenings from the remnants of the day's work.
Canadian Census 2001 data provide further confirmation of the ongoing changes in the family structure. Out of a total of 8.3 million families, 5.9 million were married, 1.1 million lived as common-law couples, and 1.3 million were single-parent families (Statistics Canada, 2001). A further 3 million were single-person households, which is in accord with trends observed in the U.K. The average number of children per family was 1.1, showing a steady decline in the birth rate over the past two decades. For the first time Statistics Canada provided data on gay couples. Of the 11 million households surveyed, 34,200, or 0.5 of all couples, stated that they were living in homosexual relationships.
Alveolus. (1) Minute air-filled sac, grouped together as alveolar sacs to form the termini of bronchioles in vertebrate lungs. Their thin walls are composed of squamous epithelial and surfactant-producing cells. A rich capillary network attached to the alveoli supplies blood for gaseous exchange across the huge total alveolar surface. A surfactant (lecithin) layer reduces surface tension, keeping alveoli open from birth onwards,.and provides an aqueous medium to dissolve gases. Macrophages in the alveolar walls remove dust and debris. (2) Expanded sac of secretory epithelium forming internal termini of ducts of many glands, e.g. mammary glands. (3) Bony sockets into which teeth fit in mandibles and maxillae of jawed vertebrates, lying in the alveolar processes of the jaws. (4) An elongated chamber on the
National mortality rate of all invasive cancer in the United States according to race, including American Indians Alaskan natives, in the period 1990-2000, as a function of age from birth to 45+ years National mortality rate of all invasive cancer in the United States according to race, including American Indians Alaskan natives, in the period 1990-2000, as a function of 5-year age intervals from birth to 44 years
In the first decade of anesthesia use, only the number of dental extractions exceeded lithotripsy in Snow's caseload third in frequency were lithotomies (surgical incision of the bladder to remove stones), followed by breast tumors, hemorrhoids, anal fistulae, harelips, and childbirth.16 Anesthesia had become routine in medical procedures, major and minor. Snow would log more than 5,000 cases in almost a dozen years and in the process was exposed to every nook and cranny of London, every walk of life, and the widest imaginable array of diseases the metropolis had to offer. the linkage of a lethal Golden Square outbreak to contamination of a popular pump in Broad Street. Mr. Knight had been intrigued by Snow's view that measures necessary to protect the public health would not interfere with useful trades. 17 Many of Snow's contemporaries were unconvinced by his reasoning and practical recommendations, even though he was by then a forty-two-year-old physician of some...
Nonrhabdomyo-sarcoma STS, including synovial sarcoma, liposar-coma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, account for the rest. Leukemias and lymphomas are also distributed differently in older adolescents than in young children. The incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) declines steadily with age from the 0- to 5-year age group upwards it accounts for 30 of all cancers in children younger than 15 years, but only 6 of cancers in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is nearly as common as ALL in 15- to 19-year-olds, and is more common than ALL in 20- to 29-year-olds. The incidence of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) increases steadily with age from birth on, but it is not as common as either ALL or AML from 15 to 29 years of age. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is uncommon in all four 5-year age groups before age 20 years, but especially in the 15- to 19-year age group....
The younger one starts smoking the greater is the chance of becoming addicted.9,16 Tobacco is widely available and relatively affordable, which promotes the development of an addiction. Social class also plays a role. In lower social classes there is a relatively higher influx of new smokers in the age group of 15- to 18-year-olds. People in these classes in general also quit smoking at an older age when confronted with severe health prob-lems.4 In the last decade there has been a rise in the number of smokers among girls and women. Of all women who quit smoking during pregnancy one-third recommence within a month after giving birth.4 Women find it harder to quit smoking then men.17
The developing fetus is very vulnerable to the toxic effects of mercury, lead, cadmium, and nickel, as well as industrial and agricultural chemicals. Small amounts of lead ingested by the mother in food and water can easily cross the placenta. Lead exposure of the fetus increases risk of premature birth. Moreover, the adverse effects of low-level lead exposure in utero can last long afterbirth - irreversibly impairing intellectual and motor development throughout childhood and lowering IQ.1. Exposure to mercury or polychlorinated biphe-nyls (widely used industrial chemicals) can retard fetal growth and cause birth defects.
The discoveries of the two BRCA genes gave birth to multiple testing systems in both the United States and Britain. While they varied widely, from a government-run national service that was part of preventive care to a laboratory technology marketed directly to consumers, each clearly incorporated into its technological architectures elements of toolkits that were specific to national context.
Practitioners of naturopathic medicine generally believe in the six following principles The body has considerable innate power to heal itself, and treatment should facilitate this ability health and disease result from a complex interaction of physical, mental, emotional, genetic, social, and environmental forces treating the cause of the illness is more important than treating the symptoms prevention of disease is paramount physicians must do no harm and the role of the physician is to empower the patient through teaching. To accomplish all of these, most naturopaths utilize a combination of disciplines, including dietetics, acupuncture, homeopathy, and herbal therapy. Hydrotherapy, applying hot and cold moisture to the body, physical therapy, and massage are also commonly used. Most naturopathy is office-based, and relies heavily upon patient education and life-style modifications. Many conventional physicians are increasingly accepting of naturopathic beliefs, because of its...
The hymen is the tissue that partially or completely surrounds the opening of the vagina. It appears that all females have hymenal tissue present at birth (91). The hymen may be annular (encircling the vaginal opening), cres-centic (present at the lateral and posterior margins), fimbriated (frilly edged), or, usually after childbirth, present only as interrupted tags or remnants. It is important that the reader refer to atlases that illustrate these variations (2,92). There is usually a single opening in the hymen. Uncommon congenital variants include two or more hymenal openings, referred to as septate or cribriform, respectively, and, rarely, complete absence of an opening (imperforate hymen).
Optimum nutrition during childhood can encourage formation of thick, acid-resistant enamel. The teeth gradually form and calcify from birth through the teen years, and a generous dietary supply of protein, calcium, fluoride, and vitamins C and D are important. Fluoride, incorporated into the enamel structure, sharply increases resistance of enamel to acid (see Fig. 5.3). Insufficient fluoride leaves teeth vulnerable to tooth decay. Low-level fluoride supplementation has great benefits adding trace amounts of fluoride to the water or salt supply can reduce risk of caries in children by more than two-thirds.9 However, too much can actually impair enamel formation and cause weakened, discolored teeth. In areas where water is fluoridated, supplementation with fluoride mouthwashes or tablets is unnecessary. However, in areas where the fluoride content of the water is very low or nonexistant, supplements are beneficial. The best time to give a fluoride supplement is at bedtime, after...
A stratified squamous epithelium lines the vagina and the vaginal cervix it contains no glands and is lubricated partly by cervical mucus and partly by desquamated vaginal epithelial cells. In nulliparous women the vaginal wall is rugose, but it becomes smoother after childbirth. The rugae of the The nulliparous external os is circular but after childbirth it becomes a transverse slit with an anterior and a posterior lip.
The vaginal orifice is guarded in the virgin by a thin mucosal fold, the hymen, which is perforated to allow the egress of the menses, and may have an annular, semilunar, septate or cribriform appearance. Rarely, it is imper-forate and menstrual blood distends the vagina (haematocolpos). At first coitus the hymen tears, usually posteriorly or posterolaterally, and after childbirth nothing is left of it but a few tags termed carunculae myrtiformes.
In a cultural setting in which nearly all mothers breastfed, help with breastfeeding was available through the shared knowledge of other family members, neighbors, and friends. As childbirth came to be managed by health professionals in hospital settings, however, knowledge of lactation, which a mother formerly shared with her daughters or a sister with her younger siblings, was set aside.
The assay is performed on bones dissected from 4-d-old mouse pups. These can be bred in house or purchased from an external supplier. We obtain the pups from pregnant Swiss white female mice, ordered to arrive on d 15 of gestation, but other strains of mice have been utilized for this assay with similar results. The mice usually give birth on the 18-19th day of gestation and produce litters of 10 or more pups. When the pups are 4 d old they are euthanized and the calvarial bones dissected out.
The first mammal cloned with a nucleus from a differentiated adult cell was born at the Roslin Institute in 199638 and whimsically named Dolly.39 Speaking genetically, she was a replica of the organism whose cell donated a nucleus.40 Dolly's nuclear parent was demonstrated morphologically and by high-tech DNA fingerprinting with polymorphic microsatellite DNA fragments. Dolly, the clone, inherited her genetic traits from a pregnant, 6-year old Finn-Dorset ewe killed in 1994 and not the Scottish Blackface which supplied the egg cytoplasm.41 In all other ways, the pale faced Dolly is as normal as any Finn-Dorset ewe produced by ordinary sexual reproduction, as demonstrated in the Autumn of 1998 by her giving birth to Bonnie and, a year later, to even more lambs.42
DRUGS THAT BLOCK HORMONE RECEPTORS Breast cancer may be caused by the lifelong exposure of breast cells to the growth-stimulating effects of the female steroid hormone, estrogen. Under normal circumstances, the effects of estrogen are essential for the growth of breast cells leading to the production of milk after a woman gives birth. However, if a tumor appears in the breast, a reasonable strategy is to neutralize the stimulatory effects of estrogen, in the hope
The 1990s could be characterized as the decade for the emergence of breastfeeding programs and clinics. Only a small number of hospitals in the United States had a lactation program in the early 1990s. But within the past decade lactation programs have proliferated rapidly and most hospitals and birth centers now have lactation services staffed by certified LCs, who have thus grown in numbers and visibility. Although lactation expertise has long been integrated into midwifery practice in countries where midwives predominate, LCs are becoming more common, especially in Australia, Canada, and Europe (Figure 2-1).
LCs who work in a birthing center, hospital, or medical office are usually salaried employees reimbursed with a set hourly or weekly wage. Hospitals usually include LC services as part of the total cost of the maternity package. The cost package is an agreement between the insurance company and the hospital to charge a certain amount of money for health-care coverage for each birth. This is known as capitation. Managed care companies compete with each other with price bids to win the health care contract, the lowest bid gaining the contract.
Health professionals, practice locations are a clinic, physician's office, or hospital where the LC receives referrals from the staff members of these organizations. Some residential neighborhoods have restrictive covenants that prevent home business or signage that a business is located in a home. Using a post office box for an address avoids neighborhood zoning restrictions. These details must be checked out in advance of opening such a facility. Inadequate road signs in suburban settings or in rural areas will make maps on the backs of flyers and other advertisements a necessity. In North American practices, busy periods clustered in March, April, and May, reflecting the higher birth rates during the warmer months, while slower periods tended to occur in November, December, and January. One of the hardest lessons for an LC to learn is that a private practice is a business if she has no business experience, she must learn about it (Auerbach, 1995). Advertising is essential in...
The posterior pituitary gland stores and then releases two hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus of the brain. The first hormone is antid-iuretic hormone (ADH). This hormone stimulates water reabsorption in the kidneys. It is also called vasopressin. The second hormone is oxytocin, which stimulates contractions in the muscles of the uterus during birth.
The company inserted the isolated spider gene into a goat's DNA at the embryo stage (an animal's earliest stage of development). The embryo was then transferred into the uterus (the female reproductive organ in which the baby animal develops before birth) of an adult female goat. When the genetically engineered goat matured and gave birth to its own young, the spider genes caused it to release spider silk proteins in its milk. Scientists were able to remove the liquid and isolate the spider silk protein. Then they pushed the protein through a tiny needle to form a silk thread like a spider would make.
The pelvis is made up of two identical mirror-image bones called the innominate bones to which the sacrum is joined from behind. They are joined to each other in the front by a band of cartilage known as the pubic symphysis. You can also see where the head of the femur fits into the socket called the acetabulum. The male pelvis and the female pelvis are differently shaped because the female pelvis must provide an opening wide enough for giving birth. It is the female pelvis that I show.
In painful affections of the uterus, camphor in 6- or 8-grain doses often affords much relief. The liniment should at the same time be well rubbed into the loins. In the convulsions attendant on child-birth, the following pills may be tried Camphor and calomel, of each 5 grains. Beat into a mass with a little honey, and divide into two pills to be followed an hour subsequently by a full dose of castor oil or other purgative.
At least four models of obtaining informed consent exist before labor, during labor, after collection, and phased.13 Before-labor consent allows the donor parent(s) to review and examine the consent documents weeks to months prior to childbirth. Donors not exposed to recruitment efforts, often as a result of inadequate prenatal care, may be excluded potential restriction in the diversity of the global UCB bank may result. During-labor consent occurs during the early phase of labor. Consent for testing and donation may also be obtained at this time. The after-collection model does not require consent for UCB collection. Once collected, an informed consent process for testing and donation is engaged. This may be troublesome given various personal, cultural, and religious beliefs toward UCB. In light of the potential advantages and disadvantages of these consent models, a phased consent policy has been adopted by some authorities. The premise upon which this policy is based is...
The transition from pregnancy to lactation is called lactogenesis. The first half of pregnancy is characterized by growth and proliferation of the ductal tree and further formation of lobules. During the second half of pregnancy, secretory activity accelerates and the acini or alveoli become distended by accumulating colostrum (Russo & Russo, 1987). After 16 weeks of pregnancy, lactation occurs even if the pregnancy does not progress. An accessory breast may also swell. Just before and during childbirth, a new wave of mitotic activity increases the total DNA of the mammary gland (Salazar & Tobon, 1974 Vorrher, 1974).
Although infants are communicative partners from birth, the dawning of language is officially marked by infants' first understanding of conventional words. For many infants, this entry into formal language occurs around 9 months of age, and coincides with a number of important social-cognitive achievements, including infants' growing abilities to discern the attention and intentions of others during social exchanges. However, as we and others have shown, early understanding is fragile, and it is not for several weeks or even months that infants begin to display flexible understanding across different contexts. Language production, which is shifted up in time by about 3 months, shows a similar pattern, moving from the context-dependent and restricted use of words to flexible expression of words. At the start of production, words are effortful and bound to the concrete, here-and-now, not yet functioning as true symbols for the child. By around 18 months, children not only acquire words...
Newborns keep their eyes closed except during brief awake periods. If you attempt to separate their eyelids, they will tighten them even more. Bright light causes infants to blink, so use subdued lighting. If you awaken the baby gently, turn down the lights, and support the baby in a sitting position, you will often find that the eyes open. The eyes of many newborns are edema-tous from the birth process.
There may be times when the person in pain gives a picture verbally that is at odds with his or her physical or physiological signs. They may underplay the pain, claiming that it is not too bad, or even non-existent, and yet there may be obvious physical signs of damage, injury or disease, for example as described in the seminal paper by Beecher (1959). This may occur at times of great stress or motivation to overcome the pain, for a variety of reasons, such as helping someone else, or to satisfy some religious or cultural imperative. Women may belittle the pain of childbirth because of their desire to give birth, and yet at the same time acknowledge that it is a painful procedure. In relatively rare circumstances some individuals
Pregnancy And Childbirth
If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?