Table 131

Other Useful Preparations Containing Bupleurum Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Preparation

Xuefu-Zhuyu-Tang (Decoction for Removing Blood Stasis in the Chest)

Chai-Ling-Tang (Sairein-To) (Decoction of Bupleurum and Poria)

Chaiping-Tang (Decoction of Bupleurum for Stomach)

Longdan-Xiegan Tang

Diankuang-Mengxing-Tang

Xuanyu-Tongjing Tang

Chaihu-Guizhi-Ganjiang-Tang (Saiko-Keishi-Kankyo-To) (Decoction of Bupleurum, Cinnamon Twig and Dried Zingiberis )

Source

Some Correction of Chinese Traditional Medicine

ZhuDanxi's Thoughtway and Methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Complete Works of Zhang Jing Yue

Golden Mirror for Orthodox Medicine

Some Correction of Chinese Traditional Medicine

Gynaecology of Fu Qing Zhu

Treatise on Febrile Disease

Ingredients

Semen Persicae, Flos Carthami, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Radix Remanniae, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Radix Achyranthis Bidentayae, Radix Platycodi, Radix Bupleuri, Fructus Aurantii, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Radix Glycyrrhizae Radix Bupleuri, Radix Scutellariae, Rhizoma Pinelliae, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, Radix Ginseng, Fructus Ziziphi Fujubae, Radix Glycyrrhizae Praeparata, Poria, Ramulus Cinnamoni, Rhizoma Alismatis, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae Radix Bupleuri, Radix Scutellariae, Rhizoma Pinelliae, Rhizoma Atractylodis, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, Cortex Magnoliae

Radix Gentianae, Radix Scutellariae, Fructus Gardeniae, Rhizoma Alismatis, Caulis Aristolochiae Manshuriensis, Semen Plantago, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Radix Bupleuri, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Radix Remanniae Semen Persicae, Radix Bupleuri, Rhizoma Cyperi, Caulis Aristolochiae Manshuriensis, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Rhizoma Pinelliae, Pericarpium Arecae Catechu, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, Cortex Mori, Fructus Perillae, Radix Glycyrrhizae Radix Bupleuri, Rhizoma Cyperi Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Rhizoma Curcumae, Semen Sinapii, Radix Scutellariae, Fructus Gardeniae, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Cortex Moutan

Radix Bupleuri, Ramulus Cinnamoni, Radix Scutellariae, Pollen, Ostrea, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, Radix Glycyrrhizae

Clinical Applications

Oxidative stress state of angina pectoris (Ning, 2004); hepatocirrhosis (Wang, 2004); oral ulcer (Yan, 2004); hyperviscosity syndrome (Wang, 2004)

Nephrotic syndrome (Chi et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2004); hepatocirrhosis ascites (He et al., 2000); catarrhal tympanitis (Xu, 1996); acute nephritis (Hu et al., 1994)

Chronic gastritis (He et al., 2004); choler reflex gastritis (Huang, 2004); cholecystitis (Sun, 2001); intestinal constipation (He, 1998)

Herpes zoster (Zhang, 2003); gout (Xu, 2002); tympanitis with effusion (Ye et al., 1995); male infertility (Chen, 1997)

Chronic schizophrenia (Wang et al., 1995); manic psychosis (Ding et al., 2001); epilepsy (Ye, 2001)

Adolescent dysmenorrhea (Zhuang et al., 2003); infertility (Lin et al., 2001)

Peptic ulcer (Ye, 2001); chronic hepatitis B (Zhang et al., 1999); irritable bowel syndrome (Pang and Liu, 2002)

TABLE 13.1 (CONTINUED)

Other Useful Preparations Containing Bupleurum Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Preparation

Chaihu-Xianxiong Tang (Chaihu Decoction for Dropping Chest)

Shengyang-Yiwei Tang (Decoction for elevating yangqi and nourishing the stomach)

Wandai-Tang (Decoction for Regulating Leukorrhea)

Shengxian-Tang (Decoction for Decline in Vigor)

Chaihu-Xixin-Tang (Saiko-SaiShin-To) (Decoction of Bupleurum and Asarum)

Chai-Pu-Tang (Saiboku-To) (Decoction of Bupleurum and Magnolia Bark)

Source

Exoteric Treatise on Febrile Disease

Treatise on the Spleen and Stomach

Gynaecology of Fu Qing Zhu

Practical Records of Traditional Chinese Medicine with Reference to Western Medicine Trauma Science (Guangzhou, TCM College, Ed.)

Ingredients

Radix Scutellariae, Rhizoma Pinelliae, Semen Trichosanthis, Radix Bupleuri, Radix Coptidis, Radix Platycodi, Fructus Aurantii Immature Praeparata Rhizoma zingiberis Recens

Radix Astragali, Radix Genseng, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Rhizoma Pinelliae, Radix Bupleuri, Radix Saposhnikoviae, Poria, Rhizoma Alismatis, Radix et Rhizoma Notopterygii, Radix Angelicae Pubescentis, Radix Coptidis, Cortex Citri Reticulatae, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, Fuctus Ziziphi Jujubae

Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Rhizoma Dioscorerae, Radix Genseng, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Semen Plantago, Rhizoma Atractylodis, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, Fructus Brassicae nigrae, Rhizoma Cyperi, Radix Bupleuri, Radix Glycyrrhizae

Radix Astragali, Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, Radix Bupleuri, Radix Platycodi, Rhizoma Cimicifugae

Radix Bupleuri, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Rhizoma Pinelliae, Folium Lycopus, Herba Asari, Eupolyphaga sinensis, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Radix Coptidis, Herbal Menthae Radix Bupleuri, Rhizoma Pinelliae, Poria, Radix Scutellariae, Cortex Magnoliae, Fuctus Ziziphi Jujubae, Radix Ginseng, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Folium Perillae, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens

Clinical Applications

Chronic hepatitis B (Zhang and An, 2004); stable angina pectoris (Xie and Chen, 2002); choler reflex gastritis (Tao, 1997)

Chronic fatigue syndrome (Shen, 2003); irritable bowel syndrome (Zhang and Liang, 2002); chronic diarrhea (Shi, 1999); senile chronic bronchitis (Gao, 1995)

Chronic diarrhea (Ma et al., 2002); chronic endometritis (Yang et al., 2001); protraction of menses (Li, 2001); leukorrhagia (Guo et al.,

1997); chronic colonitis (Chen, 1995)

Chronic fatigue syndrome (Xie, 1998); splanchnoptosis (Wu,

1998); chronic diarrhea (Yu et al., 2002)

Hemicrania (Zhuang, 2001); cerebral concussion (Lin et al., 1997); cerebral trauma syndrome (Li et al., 2000) Asthma (Kanehiro, 1996); mental diseases during aftertreatment (Matsuhashi, 1990)

water to volume, mix well as a blank. Carry out the method for spectrophotometry, measure the absorbance at 277 nm; the value of absorbance is not less than 0.50.

Other requirements: Complies with the general requirements for mixtures

Action: To remove heat, expel superficial evils

Indications: Fever caused by superficial evils

Usage and dosage: 10 to 20 ml, 3 times a day; appropriate reduction of the dosage for children

Specification: 10 ml per ampule (equivalent to 10 g of the crude drug)

Storage: Preserve in tightly closed containers, stored in a cool place

Buzhong-Yiqi-Wan

Ingredients: Radix Astragali Preparata 200 g; Radix Codonopsis 60 g; Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata 100 g; Rhizoma Atractyloidis Macrocephalae (stir-baked) 60 g; Radix Angelicae Sinensis 60 g; Rhizoma Cimicifugae 60 g; Radix Bupleuri 60 g; Pericarpium Citri Rectic-ulatae 60 g

Procedure: Pulverize the above eight ingredients to fine powder, sift, and mix well. Decoct 20 g of Rhizoma Zingiberis recens and 40 g of Fructus Jujubae with water twice and filter. Make watered pill with the decoction and dry; alternatively, concentrate the decoction, to each 100 g of powder add 100 to 120 g of refined honey and concentrated decoction, make small honeyed pills, or to each 100 g of the powder add 100 to 120 g of refined honey, make honeyed pills.

Description: Brown watered pills; or brown to blackish-brown small or big honeyed pills; taste, slightly sweet, slightly bitter and pungent.

Identification:

1. Microscopical: Fibers in bundles or scattered, walls thickened, with longitudinal fissures on the surface, both ends broken to broom-like or slightly truncate. Fiber bundles surrounded by parenchymatous cells containing prisms of calcium oxalate, forming crystal fibers, walls slightly lignified. Needles of calcium oxalate minute, 10 to 32 pm long, irregularly filled in parenchymatous cells. Prisms of calcium oxalate abundant in parenchyma. Anastomosing laticiferous tuber 12 to 15 pm in diameter, containing fine granules. Parenchymatous cells fusiform, walls slightly thickened, with very minute oblique crisscross striations. Wood fibers in bundles, mostly broken, pale yellowish green, with narrowly acute or obtuse-rounded ends, some branched, 14 to 41 pm in diameter, walls slightly thickened, with cross-shaped pit-pairs, sometimes containing yellowish brown contents. Vittae containing pale yellow or yellowish-brown stripped secretion, 8 to 25 pm in diameter.

2. Triturate well 5 g of the watered pills and 10 ml of n-hexane, or triturate 9 g of small honeyed pills or big honeyed pills, mix well with 5 g of kieselguhr, add 20 ml of n-hexane, ultrasonicate for 15 minutes, and filter. Evaporate the filtrate to dryness at a low temperature. Dissolve the residue in 1 ml of n-hexane as the test solution. Prepare a solution with 0.2 g of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae reference drug and 5 ml of n-hexane as the reference drug solution in the same manner. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography, using silica gel G as the coating substance and a mixture of petroleum ether (60 to 90°C)-ethyl acetate (20:0.1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 10 |l each of the above two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in air. Spray with a 5% solution of vanillin in sulfuric acid and heat until the spots clear. The pink spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution corresponds in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference drug solution.

3. Triturate well 5 g of the watered pills, add 20 ml of water; or cut 9 g of small honeyed pills or big honeyed pills into pieces, add 30 ml of water, decoct for 30 minutes, and filter. To the filtrate add 5 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid, ultrasonicate for 5 minutes, allow to stand, and centrifuge. Separate the precipitate and dissolve in 1 ml of dilute ethanol, neutralize with 10% solution bicarbonate solution, and heat for a while as the test solution. Dissolve ammonium glycyrrhizinate CRS in dilute ethanol to produce a solution containing 1 mg/ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography, using silica gel GF254 as the coating substance and a mixture of n-butanol-glacial acetic acid-water (6:1:3) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 5 |l each of the above two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in air and examine under ultraviolet light (254 nm). The fluorescent spot in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution corresponds in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.

Other requirements: Comply with the general requirements for pills Action: To reinforce the function of the spleen and the stomach, and to relieve prolapse Indications: Weakness of the spleen and stomach, collapse of qi in the middle-jiao marked by lassitude, anorexia, abdominal distension, chronic diarrhea, or accompanied with prolapse of the rectum or the uterus Usage and dosage: 6 g of watered pills, or 9 g of small honeyed pills or 1 big honeyed pill, 2 to 3 times a day Specification: 9 g per big honeyed pill

Storage: Preserve watered pills in well closed containers, protected from moisture; preserve small honeyed pills and big honeyed pills in tightly closed containers

Chaihu-shugan-Wan

Ingredients: Poria 100 g; Fructus Aurantii (stir-baked) 50 g; Fructus Amomi Rotundus 40 g; Radix Paeoniae Alba (stir-baked with wine) 50 g; Radix Glycyrrhizae 50 g; Rhizoma Cyperi (processed with vinegar) 75 g; Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae 50 g; Radix Platycodi 50 g; Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (processed with ginger) 50 g; Fructus Crataegi (stir-baked) 50 g; Radix Saposhnikoviae 50 g; Massa Medicata Fermentata (stir-baked) 50 g; Radix Bupleuri 75 g; Radix Scutellariae 50 g; Herba Menthae 50 g; Caulis Perillae 75 g; Radix Aucklandiae 25 g; Semen Arecae (stir-baked) 75 g; Rhizoma Sparganii (processed with vinegar) 50 g; Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (stir-baked with wine) 50 g; Pericarpium Ciri Reticulatae Virde (stir-baked) 50 g; Radix Angelicae Sinensis 50 g; Rhizoma Pinelliae (processed with ginger) 75 g; Radix Linderae 50 g; Rhizoma Curcumae (processed) 50 g. Procedure: Pulverize the above 25 ingredients to fine powder, sift, and mix well. To each

100 g of the powder add 180 to 190 g of refined honey to make big honeyed pills. Description: Blackish-brown big honeyed pills; taste, sweet and bitter Identification:

1. Microscopical: Clusters of calcium oxalate large, 60 to 140 pm in diameter. Irregular branched masses colorless, dissolved in choral hydrate solution; hyphae colorless or pale brown, 4 to 6 pm in diameter. Fiber bundles surrounded by parenchymatous cells containing prisms of calcium oxalate, forming crystal fibers. Fibers pale yellow, fusiform, with thickened walls and fine pit-canals. Fragments of endosperm colorless, with relatively thickened walls and many large subrounded pits.

2. Heat under reflux 2 pills, ground well with 8 g of kieselguhr, in 50 ml of ether on a water bath at a lower temperature for 1 hour. Filter and evaporate the filtrate to dryness, dissolve the residue in 1 ml of ethyl acetate as the test solution. To 0.5 g of Radix Aucklandiae reference drug, add 10 ml of ether, prepare a solution as the reference drug solution in the same manner. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography, using silica gel G as the coating substance and a mixture of cyclohexane-acetone (10:3) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 5 to 10 |l of the test solution and 1 |l of the reference drug solution. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in air. Spray with a 5% solution of vanillin in sulfuric acid, heat until the spots clear. The blue spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference drug solution.

3. Grind well 3 pills with 10 g of kieselguhr to fine powder, add 90 ml of chloroform, and heat under reflux for 1 hour. Filter and extract the filtrate with three 20-ml quantities of 2% solution hydroxide solution. Combine the alkaline solution, adjust the pH value to 1 to 2 with dilute hydrochloric acid. Extract with three 20-ml quantities of chloroform. Combine the chloroform extracts and wash with water, evaporate to dryness after dehydrating with anhydrous sodium sulfate. Dissolve the residue in 1 ml of dehydrated ethanol as the test solution. Dissolve magnolol CRS and honokiol CRS in dehydrated ethanol to prepare a mixture containing 1 mg of each/ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography, using silica gel GF254 prepared with 1% sodium hydroxide solution as the coating substance and mixture of benzene-ethyl acetate (6:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 5 | l each of the above two solutions, allow to stand in a condition of relative humidity >80% for 15 minutes, and then develop immediately. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in air, examine under ultraviolet light (254 nm). The spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution. Spray with a 5% solution of vanillin in sulfuric acid, heat at 105°C until the spots clear. The spots show reddish-brow or purplish-brown under sunlight.

Other requirements: Comply with the requirements for pills

Action: To disperse the stagnated liver-qi, to active the flow of qi, to relieve distension and pain

Indications: Stagnation of liver-qi, distension of chest and hypochondria, indigestion, acid eructation

Usage and dosage: 1 pill, 2 times a day

Specification: 10 g per pill

Storage: Preserve in tightly closed containers

Xiaoyao-Wan

Ingredients: Radix Bupleuri 100 g; Radix Angelicae Sinensis 100 g; Radix Paeoniae Alba 100g; Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (stir-baked) 100 g; Pria 100 g; Radix Glycyr-rhizae Preparate 80 g; Herba Minthae 20 g

Procedure: Pulverize the above seven ingredients to fine powder, sift, mix well. To each 100 g of the powder add 135 to 145 g of refined honey to make big honeyed pills.

Description: Dark brown big honeyed pills; taste, sweet

Identification:

1. Microscopical: Irregularly branched masses colorless, dissolved in chloral hydrate solution; hyphae colorless or pale brown, 4 to 6 pm in diameter. Parenchymatous cells fusiform, with slightly thickened walls and very fine and oblique crisscross striations. Clusters of calcium oxalate occurring in parenchymatous cells, usually in rows, or several clusters in one cell. Needle crystals of calcium oxalate fine, irregularly filling in parenchymatous cells. Fiber bundles surrounded by parenchymatous cells containing prisms of calcium oxalate, forming crystal fibers. Vittae contain yellow or brownish-yellow secretion.

2. Cut 2 g of the pills into pieces, add 15 ml of ethanol, allow to stand for 1 hour while shaking, filter, and evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 1 ml of acetone to produce a solution as the test solution. Prepare a solution with 0.1 g of Radix Angelicae Sinensis reference drug and 10 ml of ethanol as the reference drug solution in the same manner. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography, using silica gel G as the coating substance and a mixture of n-hexane-ethyl acetate (9:1) as the mobile phase. Apply separately 5 |l each of the two solutions to the plate. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in air and examine under ultraviolet light (365 nm). The fluorescent spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference drug solution.

3. Triturate well 18 g of the pills, cut into pieces, with 10 g of kieselguhr; add 60 ml of ethanol, ultrasonicate for 30 minutes, filter, and evaporate the filtrate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 30 ml of water, extract with two 10-ml quantities of ether, discard the ether solution, extract the aqueous solution with three 30-ml quantities of n-butanol saturated with water, wash the combined n-butanol solution with three 20ml quantities of water saturated with n-butanol. Discard the washing and evaporate the n-butanol solution to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 1 ml of methanol to produce a solution as the test solution. Prepare a solution with 1 g of Radix Glycyrrhizae reference drug and 20 ml of ethanol as the reference drug solution in the same manner. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography, using silica gel G as the coating substance prepared with a 10% solution of sodium hydroxide and a mixture of ethyl acetate-formic acid-glacial acetic acid-water (15:1:1:2) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 3 | l each of the two solutions. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in air, spray with a 10% solution of sulfuric acid in ethanol, heat at 105°C until the spots appear and examine under ultraviolet light (365 nm). The fluorescent spots in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution correspond in position and color to the spots in the chromatogram obtained with the reference drug solution.

4. Mix the test solution obtained in the test for Identification 3 with a small quantity of neutral aluminum oxide, dry on a water bath, apply to a column packed with neutral aluminum oxide (200 mesh, 2 g , 8 to 10 mm in internal diameter), elute with 40 ml of a mixture of ethyl acetate-methanol (1:1), collect the eluate, and evaporate to dryness. Dissolve the residue in 1 ml of ethanol to produce a solution as the test solution. Dissolve paeoniflorin CRS in ethanol to produce a solution containing 2 mg/ml as the reference solution. Carry out the method for thin layer chromatography, using silica gel G as the coating substance and a mixture of chloroform-ethyl ace-tate-methanol-formic acid (40:5:10:0.2) as the mobile phase. Apply separately to the plate 15 | l of the test solution and 3 | l of the reference solution. After developing and removal of the plate, dry it in air, spray with a 5% solution of vanillin in sulfuric acid, and heat until the spots appear. The spot due to paeoniflorin in the chromatogram obtained with the test solution corresponds in position and color to the spot in the chromatogram obtained with the reference solution.

Other requirements: Comply with the general requirements for pills

Assay: Carry out the method for high-performance liquid chromatography:

Chromatographic system and system suitability: Use octadecylsilane bonded silica gel as the stationary phase and a mixture of acetonitrile-1% solution of phosphoric acid (15:85) as the mobile phase. The wavelength of the detector is 230 nm. The number of theoretical plates of the column is not less than 2000, calculated with the reference to the peak of paeoniflorin.

Preparation of reference solution: Dissolve 10 mg of paeoniflorin CRS, weighted accurately, in dilute ethanol TS in a 100-ml volumetric flask, dilute to volume with the same solvent, and mix well. Transfer 5 ml, measured accurately, to a 10-ml volumetric flask, dilute to volume with dilute ethanol TS, and mix well (containing 0.05 mg of paeoniflorin per ml).

Preparation of test solution: To 1 g of the pills obtained in the test of weight variation, cut into pieces and weighed accurately, add accurately 25 ml of dilute ethanol TS in a stoppered conical flask, stopper tightly, and weigh. Ultrasonicate for 30 minutes, cool to ambient temperature, and weigh again. Replenish the lost weight with dilute ethanol TS, mix well, filter, and use the successive filtrate.

Procedure: Accurately inject 10 |l each of the reference solution and the test solution, respectively, into the column and determine. Each pill may not contain less than 6.3 mg paeoniflorin (C23H28On), referred to as Radix Paeoniae Alba. Action: To soothe the liver, invigorate the function of the spleen, nourish blood. and to regulate menstruation

Indication: Depression of the liver qi marked by distending pain in the chest and hypochondriac regions, dizziness, impaired appetite, and menstrual disorders Usage and dosage: 1 pill, 2 times a day. Specification: 9 g per pill Storage: Preserve in tightly closed containers

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