The Autoimmune Bible System

Autoimmune Diseases Causes and Possible Treatments

Get Instant Access

1. Rai KR, Sawitsky A. Cronkite ER, et al. Clinical staging of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 1975;46:219-234.

2. Binet, J-L, Leporier M, Dighiero G, et al. A clinical staging system for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 1977;40:855-864.

3. Ashby W. Determination of the length of life of transfused blood corpuscles in man. J Exp Med 1919;29:267-281.

4. Berlin R. Red cell survival studies in normal and leukaemic subjects; latent hemolytic syndrome in leukaemia with splenomegaly—nature of anemia in leukaemia—effect of splenomegaly. Acta Med Scand 1951;139 (suppl 252):1-141.

5. Ehrlich P, Morgenroth J. Ueber Hämolysine. V. Berlin Klin Wschr 1901;38:251.

6. Donath J, Landsteiner K. Ueber paroxysmale Hämoglobinurie. Münchenr Medzin Wochenschr, 1904;51:1590-1593.

7. Widal F, Abrami P, Brulé M. Les ictères d'origine hémolytique. Arch Mal Coeur 1908;1:193-231.

8. Dameshek W, Schwartz SO. Hemolysins as the cause of clinical and experimental hemolytic anemias. With particular reference to the nature of spherocytosis and increased fragility. Am J Med Sci 1938;196:769-792.

9. Coombs RRA, Mourant AE, Race RR. A new test for the detection of weak and "incomplete" Rh agglutinins. Br J Exp Pathol 1945;26:255-266.

10. Boorman KE, Dodd BE, Loutit JF. Hemolytic icterus (acholuric jaundice) congenital and acquired. Lancet 1946; i:812-814.

11. Wasserman LR, Stats D, Schwartz L, Fudenberg H. Symptomatic and hemopathic hemolytic anemia. Am J Med 1955;18:961-989.

12. Pisciotta AV, Hirschboeck JS. Therapeutic considerations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Arch Int Med 1957;99:334-335.

13. Beickert A. Die hämolytische Verlausform der chronischen lymphatischen Leukämie. Munchen Med Woschenschr 1959;101:2067-2072.

14. Dameshek W, Schwartz RS. Leukemia and auto-immunization. Some possible relationships. Blood 1959; 14:1151-1158.

15. Troup SB, Swisher SN, Young LE. The anemia of leukemia. Am J Med 1960;28:751-763.

16. Videbœk AA. Auto-immune hemolytic anemia in some malignant systemic diseases. Acta Med Scand 1962;171:463-476.

17. Harrington J, Minnich V, Hollingsworth JW, Moore CV. Demonstration of a thrombocytopenic factor in the blood of patients with thrombocytopenic purpura. J Lab Clin Med 1951;38:1-10.

18. Shulman NR, Marder VJ, Weinrach RS. Similarities between known anti-platelet antibodies and the factor responsible for thrombocytopenia in idiopathic purpura: physiologic serologic and isotopic studies. Ann NY Acad Sci 1965;124:499.

19. Minot GR, Buckman TE. The blood platelets in the leukemias. Am J Med Sci 1925;169:477-485.

20. Harrington WJ, Arimura G. Immune reactions of platelets. In: Johnson SA, Monto RW, Rebuck JW, Horn RC, eds. Blood Platelets. Little, Brown, Boston, 1961.

21. Ebbe S, Wittels B, Dameshek W. Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura ("ITP type") with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 1962;19:23-27.

22. Killman S-A. Auto-aggressive leukocyte agglutinins in leukaemia and chronic leukopenia. Acta Med Scand 1959;163:207-222.

23. Abeloff MD, Waterbury MD. Pure red cell aplasia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Arch Intern Med 1974;134:721-724.

24. Lehner-Netsch G, Barry A, Delage JM. Leukemias and autoimmune diseases: Sj0gren's syndrome and hemolytic anemia associated with chronic lymphocytic anemia. Can Med Assoc J 1969;100:1151-1154.

25. Dathan JRE, Heyworth MF, MacIver AG. Nephtotic syndrome in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. BMJ 1974; 3:655-657.

26. Cuni LJ, Grünwald H, Rosner F. Bullous pemphigoid in chronic lymphocytic leukemia with the demonstration of anti-basement membrane antibodies. Am J Med 1974;57:987-992.

27. Haubenstock A, Zalusky R. Autoimmune hyperthyroidism and thrombocytopenia in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Am J Hematol 1985;19:281-283.

28. Miller DG. Patterns of immunological deficiency in lymphomas and leukemias. Ann Intern Med 1962;57:703-715.

29. Dameshek W. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia—an accumulative disease of immunologically incompetent lymphocytes. Blood 1967;24:566-584.

30. Manohar V, Brown E, Leiserson WM, Chused TM. Expression of Ly-1 by a subset of B-lymphocytes. J Immunol 1982;129:532-538.

31. Hayakawa K, Hardy RR, Parks DR, Herzenberg LA. The Ly-1 B cell subpopulation in normal, immunodefective and autoimmune mice. J Exp Med 1983;157:202-218.

32. Herzenberg LA, Stall AM, Lalor PA, et al. The Ly1-B cell lineage. Immunol Rev 1986;93:81-102.

33. Hayakawa K, Hardy RR, Herzenberg LA. Peritoneal Ly1-B-cells: genetic control, autoantibody production, increased lambda light chain expression. Eur J Immunol 1986;16:450-456.

34. Caligaris-Cappio F. B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a malignancy of anti-self B-cells. Blood 1996;87:2615-2620.

35. Holmberg D, Forsgren S, Ivars F, Coutinho A. Reactions among IgM antibodies derived from normal neonatal mice. Eur J Immunol 1984;14:435-440.

36. Lymberi P, Dighiero G, Ternyck T, Avrameas S. A high incidence of cross reactive idiotypes among murine natural autoantibodies. Eur J Immunol 1985;5:702-707.

37. Kearney JF, Vakil M. Idiotype directed interactions during ontogeny play a major role in the establishment of the adult B cell repertoire. Immunol Rev 1986;94:39-62.

38. Hamblin TJ, Oscier DG, Young BJ. Autoimmunity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. J Clin Pathol 1986;39:713-716.

39. Dighiero G. Relevance of murine models in elucidating the origin of B-CLL lymphocytes and related immune associated phenomena. Semin Hematol 1987;24:240-251.

40. Dighiero G, Poncet P, Rouyre S, Mazie JC. Newborn Xid mice carry the genetic information for the production of natural autoantibodies. J Immunol 1986;136:4000-4005.

41. Holmberg D, Forsgren S, Ivars F, Coutinho A. Reactions among IgM antibodies derived from normal neonatal mice. Eur J Immunol 1984;14:435-440.

42. Lymberi P, Dighiero G, Ternyck T, Avrameas S. A high incidence of cross reactive idiotypes among murine natural autoantibodies. Eur J Immunol 1985;5:702-707.

43. Kearney JF, Vakil M. Idiotype directed interactions during ontogeny play a major role in the establishment of the adult B cell repertoire. Immunol Rev 1986;94:39-62.

44. Dighiero G, Hart S, Lim A, Borche L, Levy R, Miller RA. Autoantibody activity of immunoglobulins isolated from B cell follicular lymphomas. Blood 1991;78:581-585.

45. Dellagi K, Brouet JC, Danon F. Cross reacting idiotypic antigens among monoclonal immunoglobulin M from patients with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia and polyneuropathy. J Clin Invest 1979;64:1530-1539.

46. Miller RA, Gralow J. The induction of Leu-1 antigen expression in human malignant and normal B-cells by phorbolmyristic acetate (PMA). J Immunol 1984;133:3408-3412.

47. Bergsagel DE. The chronic leukemias: a review of disease manifestations and the aims of therapy. Can Med Assoc J 1967;96:1615-1620.

48. Dighiero G. Hypogammaglobulinemia and disordered immunity in CLL. In: Cheson BD, ed. Chronic Lympho-cytic Leukemia: Scientific Advances and Clinical Developments. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993, pp. 167-180.

49. Engelfriet CP, Overbeeke MAM, von dem Borne AEGK. AIHA. Semin Hematol 1992;29:3-12.

50. Dührsen U, Augener W, Zwingers T, Brittinger G. Spectrum and frequency of autoimmune derangements in lymphoproliferative disorders: analysis of 637 cases and comparison with myeloproliferative diseases. Br J Haematol 1987;67:235-239.

51. Hegde UM, Williams K, Devereux S, et al. Platelet associated IgG and immune thrombocytopenia in lymphoproliferative and autoimmune disorders. Clin Lab Haematol 1983;5:9-15.

52. Kuznetsov AI, Idel'son LI, Ivanov AL, Mazurov AV. Antithrombocyte antibodies in the serum and on the surface of the thrombocytes in patients with chronic lymphoproliferative diseases. Ter Arkh 1991;63:26-30.

53. Diehl LF, Ketchum LH. Autoimmune disease and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: AIHA, pure red cell aplasia and autoimmune thrombocytopenia. Semin Hematol 1998;25:80-97.

54. Loughran TP, Kardin ME, Starkebaum G, et al. Leukemia of large granular lymphocytes: association with clonal chromosomal abnormalities and autoimmune neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. Ann Intern Med 1985;102:169-175.

55. Lacy MQ, Kurtin PJ, Tefferi A. Pure red cell aplasia: association with large granular lymphocytic leukemia and the prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities. Blood 1996;87:3000-3006.

56. Katrinakis G, Kyriakou D, Alexandrakis M, Sakellariou D, Foudoulakis A, Eliopoulos GD. Evidence for involvement of activated CD8+/HLA-DR+ cells in the pathogenesis of neutropenia in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Eur J Haematol 1995;55:33-41.

57. Lamy T, Loughran TP. Current concepts: large granular lymphocyte leukaemia. Blood Rev 1999;13:230-240.

58. Chikkappa G, Zarrabi MH, Tsan MF. Pure red cell aplasia in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Medicine (Baltimore) 1986;65:339-351.

59. Stevenson FK, Hamblin TJ, Stevenson GT, Tutt A. Extracellular idiotypic immunoglobulin arising from human leukemia B-lymphocytes. J Exp Med 1980;152:1484-1496.

60. Broker BM, Klajman A, Youinou P, et al. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells secrete multispecific autoantibodies. J Autoimmune 1988;1:469-481.

61. Sthoeger ZM, Wakai M, Tse DB, et al. Production of autoantibodies by CD5-expressing B-lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Exp Med 1989;169:255-268.

62. Beaume A, Brizard A, Dreyfus B, Preud'homme JL. High incidence of serum monoclonal Igs detected by a sensitive immunoblotting technique in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 1994;84:1216-1219.

63. Sikora K, Kirkorian J, Levy R. Monoclonal immunoglobulin rescued from a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and AIHA. Blood 1979;54:513-518.

64. Sthoeger ZM, Stoeger D, Shtalrid M, et al. Mechanism of AIHA in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Am J Hematol 1993;43:259-264.

65. Stevenson FK, Wrightham M, Glennie MJ, et al. Antibodies to shared idiotypes as agents for analysis and therapy for human B cell tumours. Blood 1986;68:430-436.

66. Pascual V, Victor K, Lelsz D, et al. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the V regions of two IgM cold agglutinins. Evidence that the VH4-21 gene segment is responsible for the major cross-reactive idiotype. J Immunol 1991; 146:4385-4391.

67. Pascual V, Victor K, Spellerberg M, Hamblin TJ, Stevenson FK, Capra JD. VH restriction among human cold agglutinins: the VH4-21 gene segment is required to encode anti-I and anti-i specificities. J Immunol 1992; 149:2337-2344.

68. Potter KN, Li Y, Pascuel V, et al. Molecular characterization of a cross-reactive idiotope on human immunoglobulins utilizing the VH4-21 gene segment. J Exp Med 1993;178:1419-1428.

69. Li Y, Spellerberg M, Stevenson FK, Capra JD, Potter KN. The I binding specificity of VH4-34 (VH4-21) encoded antibodies is determined by both VH framework region 1 and complementarity determining region 3. J Mol Biol 1996;256:577-589.

70. Silberstein LE, Jefferies LC, Goldman J, et al. Variable region gene analysis of pathologic human autoantibodies related to the i and I red blood cell antigens. Blood 1991;78:2372-2388.

71. Crisp D, Pruzanski W. B-cell neoplasms with homogeneous cold-reacting antibodies (cold agglutinins). Am J Med 1982;72:915-922.

72. Feizi T, Wernet P, Kunkel HG, Douglas SD. Lymphocytes forming red cell rosettes in the cold in patients with chronic cold agglutinin disease. Blood 1973;42:753-762.

73. Ishida F, Saito H, Kitano K, Kiyosawa K. Cold agglutinin disease by auto-i blood type antibody associated with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Int J Hematol 1998;67:69-73.

74. Hamblin TJ, Davis Z, Gardiner A, Oscier DG, Stevenson GT. Unmutated Ig VH genes are associated with a more aggressive form of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 1999;94:1848-1854.

75. He S, Tsang S, North J, Chohan N, Sim RB, Whaley K. Epitope mapping of C1 inhibitor autoantibodies from patients with acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency. J Immunol 1996;156:2009-2013.

76. Gouet D, Marechaud R, Touchard G, Abadie JC, Pourrat O, Sudre Y. Nephrotic syndrome associated with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Nouv Presse Med 1982;11:3047-3049.

77. Moulin B, Ronco PM, Mougenot B, Francois A, Fillastre JP, Mignon F. Glomerulonephritis in chronic lympho-cytic leukaemia and related B cell lymphomas. Kidney Int 1992;42:127-135.

78. Efremov DG, Ivanovski M, Siljanovski N, et al. Restricted immunoglobulin VH regopn repertoire in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with AIHA. Blood 1996;87:3869-3876.

79. Bessudo A, Chen A, Rassenti LZ, Savin A, Kipps TJ. AIHA in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia apparently is not associated with leukemia cell expression of Ig VH 1-69 (51p1) genes. Blood 1997;90(suppl 1): 209b, abstract 3672.

80. Hamblin TJ, Davies Z, Oscier D, Stevenson F. In chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) AIHA (AIHA) is not related to any particular immunoglobulin V gene usage. Br J Haematol 1999;105(suppl 1):88.

81. Lewis FB, Schwarz RS, Damashek W. X-irradiation and alkylating agents as possible trigger mechanisms in autoimmune complications of malignant lymphoproliferative diseases. Clin Exp Immunol 1966;1:3-11.

82. Catovsky D, Foa R. B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In: Catovsky D, Foa R, eds. The Lymphoid Leukaemias. Butterworths, London, 1990, pp. 73-112.

83. Thompson-Moya L, Martin T, Heuft HG, Neubaur A, Herrmann R. Allergic reaction with immune hemolytic anemia arising from chlorambucil. Am J Hematol 1989;32:230-231.

84. Hansen MM. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: clinical studies based on 189 cases followed for a long time. Scand J Haematol 1973;18(suppl 1):1-282.

85. Hamblin TJ. Autoimmune disease and its management in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In: Cheson BD, ed. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Scientific Advances and Clinical Developments. Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001, pp. 435-458.

86. Bastion Y, Coiffier B, Dumontet C, Espinouse D, Bryon PA. Severe AIHA in two patients treated with fludarabine for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ann Oncol 1992;3:171-172

87. Di Raimondo F, Guistolisi R, Caccio;a E, et al. AIHA in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients treated with fludarabine. Leuk Lymphoma 1993;11:63-68.

88. Byrd JC, Weiss RB, Kweeder SL, Deihl LF. Fludarabine therapy with lymphoid malignancies is associated AIHA. Proc ASCO 1994;13:304a.

89. Myint H, Copplestone JA, Orchard J, et al. Fludarabine-related AIHA in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol 1995;91:341-344.

90. Leporier M, Chevret S, Cazin B, et al. Randomized comparison of fludarabine, CAP, and ChOP in 938 previously untreated stage B and C chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Blood 2001;98:2319-2315.

91. Mauro FR, Foa R, Cerretti R, et al. Autoimmune haemolytic anemia in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic features. Blood 2000;95:2786-1792.

92. Montillo M, Tedeschi A, Leoni P. Recurrence of autoimmune thrombocytopenia after treatment with fludarabine in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma 1994;15:187-188.

93. Churn M, Clough V. Autoimmune thrombocytopenia associated with the first cycle of fludarabine therapy in the treatment of relapsed non-Hodgkin'd lymphoma. Clin Radiol 2001;13:273-275.

94. Stern SC, Shah S, Costello C. Probable autoimmune neutropenia induced by fludarabine treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol 1999;106:836-837.

95. Antich Rojas J, Balaguer H, Cladera A. Selective aplasia of the red-cell series after fludarabine administration in a patient with chronic B-cell lymphatic leukemia. Sangre (Barc) 1997;42:254-256.

96. Leporier M, Reman O, Troussard X. Pure red cell aplasia with fludarabine for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Lancet 1993;342:555.

97. Tisler A, Pierratos A, Lipton JH. Crescentic glomerulonephritis associated with p-ANCA positivity in fludarabine-treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1996;11:2306-2308.

98. Dussol B, Brunet P, Vacher-Coponat H, Bouabdallah R, Chetaille P, Berland Y. Crescentic glomerulonephritis with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997;12:785-786.

99. Bazarbachi A, Bachelez H, Dehen L, Delmer A, Zittoun R, Dubertret L. Lethal paraneoplastic pemphigus following treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with fludarabine. Ann Oncol 1995;6:730-731.

100. Braess J, Reich K, Willert S, et al. Mucocutaneous autoimmune syndrome following fludarabine therapy for low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type (B-NHL). Ann Hematol 1997;75:227-230.

101. Gooplu C, Littlewood TJ, Frith P, et al. Paraneoplastic pemphigus—an association with fludarabine. Br J Dermatol 2001;144:1102-1104.

102. Oppenheim M. Verhandlungen Der Weiner dermatologischen Gesellschaft. Arch Dermatol Syphiligr 1910; 101:379-382.

103. Sachs O. Ueber pemphigoide Hauteruption in einem Falle von Lymphatischer Leukaemie. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1921;34:317.

104. Laskaris GC, Papavasilou SS, Bovopoulou OD, Nicolis GD. Association of oral pemphigus with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1980;50:244-249.

105. Anhalt GJ, Kim SC, Stanley JR, et al. Paraneoplastic pemphigus. An autoimmune mucocutaneous disease associated with neoplasia. N Engl J Med 1990;323:1729-1735.

106. Anhalt GJ, Nousari HC. Paraneoplastic autoimmune syndromes. In: Rose NR, Mackay IR, eds. The Autoimmune Diseases. 3rd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, 1998, pp. 795-804.

107. Boldt DH, Van Hoff DD, Kuhn JG, Hersh M. Effect on human peripheral lymphocytes of the in vivo administration of 9-ß-D-arabinofuranosyl-5'-monophosphate (NSC312887) a new purine antimetabolite. Cancer Res 1984;44:4661-4666.

108. Sakaguchi S, Sakaguchi N, Shimizu J, et al. Immunologic tolerance maintained by CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T-cells: their common role in controlling autoimmunity, tumor immunity, and transplantation tolerance. Immunol Rev 2001;182:18-32.

109. Shevach EM, McHugh RS, Piccirillo CA, Thornton AM. Control of T-cell activation by CD4+ CD25+ suppressor T-cells. Immunol Rev 2001;182:58-67.

110. Thornton AM, Shevach EM. CD4+ CD25+ immunoregulatory T-cells suppress polyclonal T cell activation by inhibiting interleukin 2 production. J Exp Med 1998;188:287-296.

111. Bystry RS, Aluvihare V, Welch KA, Kallikourdis M, Betz AG. B-cells and professional APCs recruit regulatory T-cells via CCL4. Nat Immunol 2001;2:1126-1132.

112. Ng WF, Duggan PJ, Ponchel F, et al. Human CD4(+)CD25(+) cells: a naturally occurring population of regulatory T-cells. Blood 2001;98:2736-2744.

113. Scrivener S, Kaminski ER, Demaine A, Prentice AG. Analysis of the expression of critical activation/interaction markers on peripheral blood T-cells in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: evidence of immune dysregulation. Br J Haematol 2001;112:959-964.

114. Dameshek W, Komninos ZP. The present status of treatment of AIHA with ACTH and cortisone. Blood 1956; 11:648-664.

115. Collins PW, Newland AC. Treatment modalities of autoimmune blood disorders. Semin Hematol 1992;29: 64-74.

116. Coon WW. Splenectomy in the treatment of hemolytic anemia. Arch Surg 1985;120:625-628.

117. Dacie JV. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Arch Intern Med 1975; 135:1293-1300.

118. Flores G, Cunningham-Rundles C, Newland AC, Bussel J. Efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of AIHA: results in 73 patients. Am J Hematol 1993;44:237-242.

119. Ruess-Borst MA, Waller HD, Muller CA. Successful treatment of steroid resistant hemolysis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia with cyclosporin A. Am J Hematol 1994;9:357-359.

120. Cortes J, O'Brien S, Loscertales J, et al. Cyclosporin A for the treatment of cytopenia associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 2001;92:2016-2022.

121. Guinet MJ, Liew KH, Quong GG, Cooper IA. A study of splenic irradiation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1989;16:225-229.

122. Esa EC, Ray PK, Swami VK, et al. Specific immunoadsorption of IgG antibody in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and AIHA. Am J Med 1981;71:1035-1040.

123. Sigler E, Shtalrid M, Goland S, Stoeger ZM, Berrebi A. Intractable acute AIHA in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia successfully treated with vincristine loaded platelet infusion. Am J Hematol 1995;50:313-315.

124. Ahrens N, Kingreen D, Seltsam A, Salama A. Treatment of refractory autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with anti-CD20 (rituximab). Br J Haematol 2001;114:241-242.

125. Zecca M, De Stefano P, Nobili B, Locatelli F. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of severe, immune-mediated pore red cell aplasia and haemolytic anemia. Blood 2001;97:3995-3997.

126. Laylos N, Van Den Neste E, Jost E, Deneys V, Schieff JM, Ferrant A. Remission of severe cold agglutinin disease after rituximab therapy. Leukemia 2001;15:187-188.

127. Zaja F, Russo D, Fuga G, et al. Rituximab in a case of cold agglutinin disease. Br J Haematol 2001;114: 232-233.

128. Bauduer F. Rituximab: a very efficient therapy in cold agglutinins and refractory autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated with CD20-positive, low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Br J Haematol 2001;112:1085-1090.

129. Huhn D, von Schilling C, Wilhelm M, et al. Rituximab therapy in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 2001;98:1326-1331.

130. Willis F, Marsh JCW, Bevan DH, et al. Effect of treatment with Campath-1H in patients with autoimmune cytopenias. Br J Haematol 2001;114:891-898.

131. The American Society of Hematology ITP Practice Guideline Panel. Diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: recommendations of the American Society of Hematology. Ann Intern Med 1997; 126:319-326.

132. McMillan R. Therapy for adults with refractory chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:307-314.

133. Ahn YS, Harrington WJ, Mylvagnam R, Allen LM, Pall LM. Slow infusion of vinca alkaloids in the treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:192-196.

134. Baumann MA, Menitove JE, Aster RH, Anderson T. Urgent treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura with single dose gammaglobulin infusion followed by platelet transfusion. Ann Intern Med 1986;104:808-809.

135. Orchard J, Bolam S, Myint H, Oscier DG, Hamblin TJ. In patients with lymphoid tumours recovering from the autoimmune complications of fludarabine, relapse may be triggered by conventional chemotherapy. Br J Haematol 1998;102:1112-1113.

136. Montillo M, Tedeschi A, O'Brien S, Lerner S, Morra E, Keating MJ. Autoimmune phenomena against hematopoietic cells and myelosuppression in CLL treated with fludarabine-including regimens as front-line therapy. InL Proceedings of the IWCLL VIII Workshop on CLL, 1999, p. 54, abstract P091.

137. Tosti S, Caruso R, D'Adamo F, et al. Severe AIHA in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia responsive to fludarabine responsive treatment. Ann Hematol 1992;65:238-239.

138. Wintrobe MM. Clinical Hematology, 7th ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1974, p. 1317.

139. Crosby WM. The spleen. In:Wintrobe MM, ed. Blood, Pure and Eloquent. McGraw Hill, New York, 1980, pp. 96-138.

140. Dameshek W, Estren S. Hypersplenism. Med Clin North Am 1950;34:1271-1292.

141. Blendis LM, Banks DC, Ramboer C, Williams R. Spleen blood flow and splanchnic haemodynamics in blood dyscrasia and other splenomegalies. Clin Sci 1970;38:73-84.

142. Bowdler AJ. Splenomegaly and hypersplenism. Clin Haematol 1983;12:467-488.

143. Brubaker LH, Johnson CA. Correlation of splenomegaly and abnormal neutrophil pooling (margination). J Lab Clin Med 1978;92:508-515.

144. Schaffner A, Augustiny N, Otto RC, Fehr J. The hypersplenic spleen. A contractile reservoir of granulocytes and platelets. Arch Intern Med 1985;145:651-654.

145. Aster RH. Pooling of platelets in the spleen: role in the pathogenesis of "hypersplenic" thrombocytopenia. J Clin Invest 1966;45:645-657.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment