Conclusion Of Cinnamon

The broad spectrum of pharmacological actions of cinnamon cortex and cinnamon oil, together with its use as a spice, makes it a wonder plant. In the Indian and Chinese systems of traditional medicine cinnamon is used in many therapeutic formulations as a stimulant, a tonic, and in the relief of rheumatic disorders, of stomach disorders, of diabetes, etc. But in these systems an active principle-based pharmacological activity is not considered as the basis of therapeutics. Therefore,...

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Cinnamon taken in hot rum gives relief from the common cold. 2. Ground cinnamon added to hot milk or stirred into a mixture of lemon juice, honey and hot water and taken at bedtime lessens the miserable effect of the common cold. 3. A tablespoon of cinnamon water taken half an hour after meals is effective against flatulence and indigestion. 4. A paste of cinnamon powder in water, applied to the forehead, is effective against headache. 5. Coarsely powdered cinnamon boiled in a glass of water...

Introduction

In the following text the term cinnamon is used to mean both Ceylon cinnamon and Chinese cinnamon or Cassia cinnamon. The medicinal and aromatic properties of cinnamon are used in the traditional medicines of India and China. Cinnamon bark and cinnamon oil have also been used as food additives, condiments and flavouring agents due to their carminative, antioxidant and preservative actions. In the Ayurveda and Sidha medical systems, cinnamon bark, twigs, leaves and oil are used as ingredients of...

Cinnamon and Cassia The Future Vision

Wijesekera Cinnamon and cassia are two established natural food flavours. Food technologists and food manufacturers find it very difficult to imitate them completely with synthetic substitutes. The earliest attempts to imitate cinnamon or cassia flavours were by using synthetic cinnamic aldehyde. Although cinnamic aldehyde gives a very crude imitation of either cinnamon or cassia, it does not closely resemble the natural flavour. Using advanced analytical methods such...

Properties and Uses

Camphor has been indicated for the treatment of a variety of illnesses and afflictions in Chinese, Japanese and Indian systems of medicines. The varied medicinal uses to which oil is put to use are summarised below. Camphor possesses stimulant, carminative, and aphrodisiac properties, and is widely used in traditional medicine, both externally and internally. Its primary action is that of a diffusible stimulant and diaphoretic its secondary action is that of a sedative, anodyne, and...

Chinese Cassia

Cinnamon Bark Microscopy

Cinnamon and Cassia are among the oldest spices reaching ancient Egypt, reportedly by the seventeenth century B.C. But it seems that the bark that was entering the cinnamon trade in ancient times was of different botanical origin. Probably the Greek and Romans had used both cinnamon and cassia, but the Arab traders who dominated and controlled the spices trade shrouded the sources in mystery. Cinnamon and cassia were among the spices sought after by most fifteenth- and sixteenth-century...

Botany and Crop Improvement of Cinnamon and Cassia

Cinnamon Bark And Twig

Nirmal Babu and B. Krishnamoorthy The genus Cinnamomum Schaeffer, comprises evergreen trees and shrubs, found from the Asiatic mainland to Formosa, the Pacific Islands, Australia and in tropical America. The American species have only recently been recognised formerly they were included mostly in Phoebe, an entirely Asiatic genus . There are 341 reported binomials in the genus, which according to Kostermans 1957 could be reduced considerably in a revision....

Conclusion

The species C. verum, C. cassia and C. camphora contain volatiles both common and unique to each species. The three types of oils produced from cinnamon have the same array of aromatic and terpenoid compounds but in characteristically different proportions. Cinnamic aldehyde is the major compound in the stem bark oil containing 65 75 of the total volatiles, eugenol accounts for about 70 75 of leaf oil, while 70 90 of the root bark oil accounts for camphor. Cassia produces only one type of oil,...

Timemin

Glc Report For Cinnamon Leaf Oil

Figure 3-1 GLC chart of non-eugenol fraction of commercial cinnamon leaf oil on SCOT column. Figure 3.2 GLC chart of commercial cinnamon bark oil on SCOT column. Figure 3.2 GLC chart of commercial cinnamon bark oil on SCOT column. Following the development of solid injection techniques, Senanayake et al. 1975 , Wijesekera et al. 1975 and Wijesekera 1978 employed this methodology for the study of volatile constituents of morphologically distinct parts of the cinnamon tree, employing as little as...

Modern History

The modern chapter in the saga of spices begins with the discovery of the sea route to India and the landing of Vasco-da-Gama on the Malabar coast near the present day Calicut in Kerala state of India on 20 May 1498. This indeed was the beginning of the history of modern India too. The West European countries were compelled to establish a sea route to the eastern spice lands following the conquest of the Roman Empire and the closure of Constantinople for trade by the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The...

Thin Walled Oil Cells In Cinnamomum Bark

Cinnamomum Tamala Microscopic Structure

Oil oil cells muc mucilage cells p palisade parenchyma s spongy parenchyma absent 1 S0.1 cell mm leaf width 2 0.1 1 cell mm 3 1 2 cells mm 4 2 5 cells mm 5 5 10 cells mm p present. t lamina thickness 1 100 200 xm 2 200 300 xm 3 gt 300 xm cu adaxial cuticle thickness 1 lt 3 fxm 2 3 8 fxm cp adaxial epidermis thickness not sclerified slightly sclerified moderately, distinctly sclerified strongly sclerified. p palisade parenchyma 1 unilayered not sclerified c upper layer with sclerified outer...

Annex 31 Additional information provided by the editors

Cinncassiols

Secondary metabolites from cinnamon and cassia Many interesting chemical substances, other than those present in the essential oils, have been isolated from the bark of cinnamon and cassia. Some of these compounds are responsible for the pharmacological toxicological properties of cinnamon and cassia. Isogai et al. 1976, 1977, 1979 isolated cinnzeylanine and cinnzeylanol from cinnamon bark. Cinnzeylanine 1 has a molecular formula of C22H34O8, is a diterpene, having a pentacyclic skeleton MP 265...

Cinnamon Distillery Unit

Cinnamon Bark Distillery Sri Lanka

The cleanliness and levels of dust, mould and other pathogenic organisms are important aspects of the production of cinnamon quills, quillings, featherings and chips. Consumers directly use them in most of the food formulations. It has been reported that compounds such as cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol found in them inhibit the growth of microorganisms Bullernan et al, 1977 . The general requirements for cinnamon bark are given in Table 5.1. Products Based on Cinnamon Bark and Leaf Cinnamon...

Microscopic Features Of Cinnamon Bark

Cinnamon Microscopy

Figure 2.10 Microscopical features of bark powder of C. verum. 1, 1a. Fibres. 2. Selereids. 3. Starch granules. 4. Cork in surface view. 5. Phloem parenchyma and oil cells oc . 6. Parts of medullary ray with some of the cells containing acicular crystals of calcium oxalate co and associated phloem parenchyma in tangential longitudinal section. 7. Calcium oxalate crystals. 8. Part of the fibre with an associated oil cell and phloem parenchyma. 9. Part of a group of fibres and selereids from the...

Paracytic Stomata

Anomocytic Stomata

C. camphora and in C. cassia while C. verum and C. malabatrum have a higher frequency. Guard cell dimensions do not show much variation among species except in C. camphora, in which the dimensions are higher than those in other species. Metcalfe and Chalk 1950 and Kasapligal 1951 were of the opinion that stomata in Lauraceae were paracytic Rubiaceous , i.e. that they remain surrounded by two subsidiary cells placed parallel to the pore. Pal 1974 reported that in C. camphora and C. zeylanicum C....

Sclereids Stone Cells In Cinnamon

Brachial Sclereids

Figure 2.7 Stomatal development in C. verum. 1. A meristomoid m cutting off from the protoderm cell. 2. Enlarged and spherical meristomoid. 3 and 4. Vertical divisions of the meristomoid producing two guard cells. 5. Mature stomata in C. camphora. 6. Mature stomata in C. verum. Source Shylaja, 1984. that is still evolving, and some species may be evolutionarily more advanced. The conflicting reports on the type of stomata lead one to doubt whether both types exist in cinnamon. Leaf tissues of...