Table

Characteristics of the Two Main Factions in Chronobiology in the 20th Century

Faction Leading Figure Primary Emphasis Central Focus Main Tool Favored Journal

Clocks Pittendrigh Basic Mechanisms Actogram Journal of Biological Rhythms

(since 1986)

Chronome Halberg Applied Rhythms Cosinor Chronobiologia (1974 to 1994)

FIGURE 1.20 Where is Waldo? As in the popular book series Where's Waldo?, you may have a hard time identifying individual circadian physiologists in this group photograph of the participants in a conference held at Dartmouth Medical School (Hanover, New Hampshire) in July 1995. (Source: Photograph courtesy of Jay Dunlap and Jennifer Loros, the meeting organizers.)

FIGURE 1.20 Where is Waldo? As in the popular book series Where's Waldo?, you may have a hard time identifying individual circadian physiologists in this group photograph of the participants in a conference held at Dartmouth Medical School (Hanover, New Hampshire) in July 1995. (Source: Photograph courtesy of Jay Dunlap and Jennifer Loros, the meeting organizers.)

publications. The fact that Pittendrigh's individual articles are cited more often may reflect his focus on specific topics. In his articles, Halberg often digressed into far-reaching subjects, including the concept of "astrochrono-biology."57,77 I once told him that this reminded me of the concept of "orgasmic energy," a crazy idea of psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich, according to whom the energy of sexual orgasms permeates the universe.78 Halberg's reply was not "Oops, maybe I should be more reticent," but something like "Oh yes, poor Reich, he was ridiculed for being an open-minded scientist!"

Basic information about research grants awarded in the United States by the National Institutes of Health (the major source of research funding in the country) is freely available through the Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects (CRISP). Between 1972 (the first year available) and 1996 (the year of Pittendrigh's death), CRISP lists 81 grants awarded to Franz Halberg and 17 grants awarded to Colin Pittendrigh. Between 1972 and 2004, CRISP lists 20 grants for William Hrushesky, a major researcher in the chronome faction,79-82 and 32 grants for Joseph Takahashi, a major researcher in the clocks faction.83-86

In terms of peer-recognition and research funding, the objective measures of professional achievement agreed to by both factions, the chronome and clock groups are

FIGURE 1.21 First major attempt to unify the field. An International Congress on Chronobiology, held in Washington, D.C., in 1999, was the first major attempt to unify the field of studies of biological rhythms. (Source: Image cover of Congress program.)

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