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Conversation Escalation Make Small Talk Sexy

In this ground-breaking program you'll learn the subtleties of conversation to pinpoint the specific problems that are ruining your chances with women. You'll learn how to draw people out to talk about more interesting topics in a more natural way instead dragging it out of them. And the mindset tricks so that you can Always be in the zone with women whenever you're talking to them. What's unique about this course is that its based on examples and application and is filled with hundred of little bite size game changers that you'll be able to see an immediate impact on your conversations tonight. Read more...

Conversation Escalation Make Small Talk Sexy Summary


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Author: Bobby Rio
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My Conversation Escalation Make Small Talk Sexy Review

Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

Overall my first impression of this book is good. I think it was sincerely written and looks to be very helpful.

Conversation and Small Talk

Othmer and Othmer (1994) consider introduction, conversation, and initial informal chatting as methods to help put clients at ease. These efforts may involve the following Were you able to find the office (or a place to park) easily (small talk and em-pathic concern) (with children or adolescents) I see you've got a Los Angeles Lakers hat on. You must be a Lakers fan. (small talk an attempt to connect with the client's world) Chatting is often held to a minimum with adult clients, unless they are uncooperative and resistant, in which case it may constitute your primary interviewing technique. On the other hand, as we discuss more thoroughly in Chapter 10, initial casual conversation can easily make or break an interview with a child or adolescent. Many interviews with young people succeed primarily because at the beginning of the first session, you take time to discuss with the child his or her views on television shows, race cars, favorite foods, music groups, sports teams, and so...

Toward A Definition Of Clinical Interviewing

An interview is an interaction between at least two persons. Each participant contributes to the process, and each influences the responses of the other. However, this characterization falls short of defining the process. Ordinary conversation is interactional, but surely interviewing goes beyond that. (Trull & Phares, 2001)

Recording Telephone Calls

Many countries have laws or regulations that govern the electronic recording of telephone conversations, which are designed to protect individuals' rights. Commonly, a provision will be included stating that persons whose telephone calls are being recorded must be informed of the fact the details vary from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for example, the Telecommunications Act of 1984 requires that the person making a recording shall make every reasonable effort to inform the parties of doing so. Every reasonable effort is not defined statutorily, but the Office of Telecommunications , which is a government-appointed regulatory body, now subsumed within OfCom (Website, has issued guidance. Reasonable effort may be achieved by the use of warning tones, prerecorded messages, verbal warnings given by a telephone operator, or written warnings in publicity material.

Detention and Confidentiality

A forensic physician (or equivalent) should exercise particular care over confidentiality when examining persons who are detained in custody. When taking the medical history and examining the detainee, it is common for a police or other detaining official to be in attendance, perhaps as a chaperone or simply as a person in attendance, nearby to overhear the conversation. Such officials will not owe to the detainee the same duty of confidentiality that is owed by a medical or nurse practitioner nor be subject to similar professional sanctions for a breach of confidentiality.

The Role Of Parents In Early Understanding Of Words

However, in addition to availing infants of these naturally occurring connections, parents differ in the ways they verbally communicate to their young children, in terms of the timing of their responses and the content of what they say, and these supports affect the course of children's receptive (and later productive) language. As noted earlier, parents' verbal responsiveness is thought to be especially supportive of children's understanding of words because responsive verbal information is offered at times of psychological salience. Adults who label objects and events that are the target of children's attention constrain interpretive possibilities, bolstering conceptual connections between words and referents (e.g., Baldwin & Markman, 1989 Bloom, 1993 Bloom, Margulis, Tinker, & Fujita, 1996 Carpenter et al., 1998 McCune, 1995 Rogoff, Mistry, Radziszewska, & Germond, 1992 Snow, 1986 Tomasello & Farrar, 1986). For example, a mother might gesture toward a novel object to elicit her...

Reminders Symbolic Understanding And Memory Development

A very significant development in reminding also occurs around 3 years of age which allows for even greater flexibility in memory reinstatement. In addition to physical and representational reminders, by three years of age children are engaging in verbal conversations about past events with their parents (Fivush, 1991 Hudson, 1990b Nelson, 1993 Nelson & Fivush, 2000, 2004). Although children begin talking about the past sometime between 16 and 20 months (Eisenberg, 1985), children under three years of age show little evidence of being able to use language alone to reinstate event memories. When they engage in joint reminiscing between the ages of 2 to 3, however, conversations about past events provide an important reinstatement context for autobiographic memories. Several studies have shown that participation in parent-child conversations about past events enhances children's event recall, especially when parents provide complex and elaborate accounts of events (McCabe & Peterson,...

Educating Clients and Evaluating Their Expectations

Final introductory phase tasks involve client education and evaluation of client expectations. Several rules apply. First, clients should be informed of confidentiality and its limits. This process should be simple, straightforward, and interactive. You should be clear about the concept of confidentiality before beginning an interview so you can explain it clearly (see Chapter 2). You should check with clients to determine if they understand confidentiality. A conversation similar to the following is recommended Engage in conversation or small talk.

Chris Dracup Northumbria

Schopenhauer said that a friend in conversation was the midwife at the birth of a thought. If so then a number of my friends have certainly earned certificates in midwifery. Among them Richard Kenyon, Victor Serebriakoff, Robin Smith, Sherrie Reynolds, all of my family, Fred Abraham, Malcolm Weller, Elliott Mid-dleton, and Boris Somod were called upon to facilitate a delivery, sometimes in the middle of (their) night. Conversations not followed immediately by a birth with Sue Aylwin, Ronnie Cunliffe, John and Irmgarde Horsley, Jouko Seppa-nen, Adrian Spooner, and Alan Slater led more often than not to a pregnancy. I would also like to thank my colleagues at the University of Northumbria who allowed me to take sabbatical leave during a crucial point in the writing of the book. Among them, Chris Dracup, Pam Briggs, Delia Wakelin, and John Newton particularly helped me, and Jeremy Atkinson's encouragement was greatly appreciated. The students of my Chaos and Fractals courses over several...

Note On Remembering And Recalling

In a personal conversation (1989), Skinner indicated that he kept some of the birds from Project Pigeon when funding was discontinued. The birds were housed in a coop in his garden. Skinner said that over a period of 6 years, he tested the birds for retention. The birds were food deprived and placed in the original apparatus after 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 4 years, and 6 years.

Of Neuro Ophthalmic Emergencies

When possible, the previous records of the patient's care should be reviewed prior to beginning the interview. Usually, if the patient will allow, it helps to include in the conversation those other persons who have come to the visit, such as the patient's spouse or close relatives. These people can often provide information that the patient does not know or cannot remember. Patients are often anxious or fearful, and the physician can put them more at ease by conversing in layperson's terms rather than in the technical jargon used by clinicians.

Schedules and Natural Contingencies

Schedules of intermittent reinforcement play an important role in the regulation of human social interaction. In this case, the behavior of one person affects what another individual does and vice versa. For example, Paul asks his friend Erin, who is looking out the window, if the pizza delivery person has arrived yet. The operant is Paul's question, Is the pizza here Reinforcement for the question is the reply from Erin. Importantly, Erin's reply is not certain and depends on many factors. Erin may not hear the question she may be preoccupied with other things she may have just had an argument with Paul and refuse to talk. No matter what the reason, Paul's question may not be reinforced on this occasion. Of course, most of the time Erin answers when asked a question. This means that Paul's verbal behavior is on an intermittent schedule of social reinforcement. Thus, one reason schedules are important is that they approximate some of the complex contingencies that operate with humans...

Discriminative Stimuli

Operant behavior is said to be emitted in the sense that it often occurs without an observable stimulus preceding it. This is in contrast to reflexive responses, which are elicited by a preceding stimulus. Reflexes are tied to the physiology of an organism and, under appropriate conditions, always occur when the eliciting stimulus is presented. For example, Pavlov showed that dogs automatically salivated when food was placed in their mouths. Dogs do not learn the relationship between food and salivation this reflex is a characteristic of the species. Stimuli may also precede operant behavior. However, these events do not force the occurrence of the response that follows them. An event that precedes an operant and sets the occasion for behavior is called a discriminative stimulus, or SD (pronounced esse-dee). Discriminative stimuli change the probability that an operant will be emitted based on a history of differential reinforcement. Differential reinforcement involves reinforcing an...

Negative Reinforcement

Negative reinforcement plays a major role in the regulation of everyday human behavior. For example, you put on sunglasses because in the past this behavior removed the glare of the sun. You open your umbrella when it is raining because doing so has prevented you from getting wet. You leave the room when someone is rude or critical, because this behavior has ended other similar conversations. Consider that you live in a place with a very sensitive smoke detector. Each time you are cooking, the smoke detector goes off. You might remove the sound by tripping the breaker or fuse that controls the alarm. In fact, you will probably learn to do this each time before cooking. As a final example, a mother may pick up and rock her crying baby, because, in the past, comforting the child has stopped the crying. In each of these instances, removing an event strengthens an operant.

Discussing Confidentiality and Informed Consent

Now (while looking at the child adolescent), one of the trickiest situations is whether I should tell your mom and dad about what we talk about in here. Let me tell you how I like to work and see if it's okay with you. (Look back at parents.) I believe your daughter (son) needs to trust me. So, I would like you to agree that information I give to you about my private conversations with her (him) be limited to general progress reports. In other words, aside from general progress reports, I won't tell you what your child tells me. Of course, there are some exceptions to this, such as if your child is planning or doing something that might be very dangerous or self-destructive. In those cases, I'll tell your child (turn and look to child) that he (she) is planning something I think is dangerous and then we'll have everyone (turn back to parents) come in for an appointment so we can all talk directly about whatever dangerous thing has come up. Is this arrangement okay with all of you

Positive Punishment

Positive punishment occurs when a stimulus is presented following an operant and the operant decreases in rate of response. The contingency, positive punishment, is shown in cell 2 of Fig. 6.1. When a parent spanks a child for running into the street and the child stops doing it, this is positive punishment (see Gershoff, 2002, on corporal punishment by parents also, Park, 2002, on the difficulty of isolating the effects of parental punishment from a package of disciplinary tactics). Of course, spanking is a punishing consequence, only if it decreases the probability of running into the street. This is an important point, because in usual language people talk about punishment without considering its effects on behavior. For example, you may shout and argue with another person when he or she expresses a particular political position. Your shouting is positive punishment, only if the other individual stops (or decreases) talking about politics. In fact, the person may increase his or...

Is This Pain or Abuse

At this point, with Rita's permission, her husband was invited to join the session. He was asked about his reaction to his wife's distress. He was indifferent, and dismissive of her story. His response presented an opportunity to explore their marital situation. He was unwilling to participate in any further conversations.

An Older Retired Couple

Quite out of character, he jumped at the opportunity. He stated that indeed he would like to go to the corner store to get a newspaper or make a cup of coffee for his wife or go out for long drives on warm days, and perhaps even have a little more conversation with her about their lives together. Mrs. Friesen was visibly startled by this, what might have seem to her like an outburst. She felt accused by her husband of preventing him from doing things. She was cautiously steered into considering if his desire for more involvement seemed reasonable. She may have agreed or acquiesced, but it was hard to tell. They agreed on the following

Assessment of Behavior Change

A downward (or upward) drift in baseline may be acceptable if the treatment is expected to produce an opposite trend. For example, a shy child may show a declining trend in talking to other students. In this case, an intervention could involve reinforcing the initiation of conversation by the child. Because the treatment is expected to increase talking, the

Aggression Breeds Aggression

Sailors would amuse themselves by tying several boys or younger men in a ring to a mast by their left hands, their right hands remaining free. Each boy was given a stick or whip and told to strike the boy in front of him whenever he felt himself being struck by the boy behind. The game was begun by striking one boy lightly. This boy then struck the boy ahead of him, who in turn struck the boy next ahead, and so on. Even though it was clearly in the interest of the group that all blows be gentle, the inevitable result was a furious lashing. The unstable elements in this interlocking system are easy to identify. We cannot assume that each boy gave precisely the kind of blow he received because this is not an easy comparison to make. It is probable that he underestimated the strength of the blows he gave. The slightest tendency to give a little harder than he received would produce the ultimate effect. Moreover, repeated blows probably generate an emotional disposition in which one...

Longterm Memory Before Age Three

Current evidence points to a compelling link between individual differences in children's memory reports and variations in the social environments in which they live. A central element of the social environment is the conversations children have with adults. Such conversations influence children's event recall in several ways that are now well documented. As Nelson (1993) noted, the process of co-construction of memories that takes place in conversations between children and their caregivers gives children a model for encoding and recalling events. As children make gains in language, they absorb and practice the dominant narrative structure with which those around them discuss events. In this way, children learn to discuss past events in appropriate, socially shared ways, and they also learn to accumulate and organize personal event memories that become part of their unique autobiographical history (e.g., Fivush & Hudson, 1990 Nelson, 1993 Tessler & Nelson, 1994). Researchers...

Synergistic Process

Notably, qualitative studies have been better able to capture the dynamic, changing, and transactional qualities of racial ethnic socialization processes than have studies based on self-report methodologies. These qualitative studies suggest that parents are quite aware of the transactional nature of their racial ethnic socialization efforts. In a number of them, parents' narratives feature the queries and experiences children that prompt conversations about race. Thus, racial ethnic socialization is primarily contained within nuanced microsocial exchanges between parents and children. However, studies to date have not attempted to distinguish situations in which racial ethnic socialization is child- versus parent-initiated, or to elaborate the synergistic qualities of the process.

Hospice Transition And Hematologic Malignancies

Prior to each change in treatment and with each relapse, the goals of care (and therapy) should be reviewed with the patient. The understanding by the patient as to the intent of treatment, and what is meant by treatment, can be widely divergent. Patients may believe they are receiving curative therapy while physicians have palliation and disease maintenance in mind. Discussions about advanced directives are important early in the course of disease, particularly for chronic leukemias, myeloma, and amyloid. This is sometimes difficult for physicians, as they recognize that patients assume by such conversations that they are terminally ill. Advanced directives should be portrayed as an extension of autonomy in the face of an unpredictable disease course ( hoping for the best but planning for the worst, which is a good way of introducing the subject).

Io A deceptively simple question

Picture a conversation with a bespectacled pan-externalist strawman, who is sitting in a straw armchair listening attentively to what you and I have to say. First, we bring natural selection into the conversation. The strawman beams. Next, we progress to adaptation. The beam remains. Then, we narrow down to coadaptation. At this point, the strawman's beam becomes less pronounced, and we can perhaps detect a little apprehension about where the conversation might go next. Then, in connection with the evolutionary forces producing coadaptation, we use the phrase 'internal selection'. Now, the strawman's expression turns to annoyance, and he goes a deep purple. We then, foolishly, make the bold statement that 'internal selection, and indeed other internal factors too (like developmental bias), make a significant contribution to evolutionary direction'. We are only saved from being chased out of the room by the angry strawman by the fact that he undergoes spontaneous combustion....

Increasing School Attendance 31 Assessment

The most important step in assisting children's return to school is the identification of specific obstacles to school attendance (4,18). The pediatric or mental health provider must conduct a detailed assessment of obstacles to school attendance. Questions about obstacles to school attendance should be non-threatening and designed to solicit general conversation with the child about school. Typically, conversations with children will provide a great deal of information about school attendance and issues of anxiety. In general, this is a time for the provider to establish rapport with the child. In most cases, it is usually not helpful to ask yes or no questions because open-ended questions will elicit more from the child.

Historical Context

With one million cancer diagnoses in the United States each year numerous clinical trials are under way to develop early diagnostic tests and treatments beyond surgery and chemotherapy. Researchers who enroll about two percent of adult cancer patients into drug studies get valuable data desperate patients hope for a miracle. However, the reality of clinical trials conducted first in nonhumans and then in humans often is pure research promising no therapeutic value for the participants, which brings into focus the question of their rights. Primarily, at hospital admission patients are asked about any advance directives they have signed including living wills, health-care powers of attorney, and organ donation. A patient advocate is always available to field questions and general complaints. The attending doctor reviews the patient's medical history, performs a physical examination, and presents a plan for healing. Along the way, the patient may seek an ethics consultation, which is a...

When the Union Square Theater in Manhattan

Note that in the above examples the continuation of the second sentence in context was conducted using an (inter-sentence, long-range context) knowledge base educated via exposure to meaning-coherent sentence pairs selected by an external agent. When tested with context, using completely novel examples, it then produced continuations that are meaning-coherent with the previous sentence (i.e., the continuations are rarely unrelated in meaning to the context sentence). Think about this for a moment. This is a valuable general principle with endless implications. For example, we might ask how can a system learn to carry on a conversation Answer simply educate it on the conversations of a master human conversationalist There is no need or use for a ''conversation algorithm.'' Confabulation architectures work on this monkey-seel monkey-do principle.

A passion for complexity and the challenge of longterm research

Although some scientists talked about their research with BRCA genes in terms of a process of uncovering knowledge that would lead in a linear direction towards patient care, a rather different picture began to emerge in talking to others or as initial conversations with individuals slipped into more detailed discussions of research. These revealed how it was precisely the complex, difficult and uncertain nature of this domain of basic science research which fascinated and motivated them in the work they did.

Research Utilization Studies

At the nursing unit level, factors influencing research utilization by nurses were characteristics of the local environment, characteristics of the larger organizational context, and of particular note, leadership style on the patient care unit. We observed that both the use of research and the manner in which this use was expressed varied among professions. Physicians, for example, demonstrated research use in what we would consider a fairly classic manner verbally in rounds using scientific language. The use of research by nurses, on the other hand, was embedded in everyday actions and conversations and therefore difficult to recognize as explicit research use. Within the nursing profession, there are variations in the use of research and the expression of that use, depending on the role and position of the nurse. Our findings suggested that nurses also rely heavily on tacit sources of knowledge. In these studies, nurses preferred interactions in the workplace as sources of practice...

The Power Of Observation Abnormalities That Can Be Detected While Observing Play

Physical Examination Play

Engage children in conversation appropriate to their ages, and then ask simple questions about themselves, their illness, or their toys. It is helpful to compliment them about their appearance or behavior, tell a story, or play a simple game or trick to break the ice. If a child is shy and reticent, turn your attention to the parent to allow the child to warm up to you gradually. Your approach to the child should be pleasant. Explain each step of the examination as you are performing it. Keep up a running conversation with the parent or the child during the examination to provide distraction.

Early And Late Childhood And Adolescence

Late Childhood

Most children are ticklish when you first place your hand on their abdomens for palpation. This reaction tends to disappear, particularly if you distract the child with conversation and place your whole hand flush on the abdominal surface for a few moments without probing. For children who are particularly sensitive and who tighten their abdominal muscles, you can start by placing the child's hand under yours as shown in the following photo. Eventually you will be able to remove the child's hand and palpate the abdomen freely.

Messages Sent Versus Messages Received

Although we describe these types of racial ethnic socialization message separately, it seems likely that particular racial ethnic socialization messages as they occur in everyday conversation are less readily distinguishable. For instance, messages emphasizing cultural pride and history (cultural socialization) also may contain messages about historical discrimination and prejudice (preparation for bias), at least among minority populations in the United States. Similarly, parents may inadvertently embed cautions or warnings about other groups (promotion of mistrust) in their efforts to prepare children for racial bias (preparation for bias). Thus, different types of messages are not mutually exclusive. Indeed, research is needed to identify how messages occur together in natural day to day exchanges.

The Functions of Friendships Between Very Young Children

We expect that older children or adolescents derive feelings of social support, trust, and intimacy from their relationships with friends (Howes, 1996). It is difficult to directly apply these constructs to the friendships of very young children. There are, however, several pieces of evidence that support the idea that children who form friendships as preverbal children in child care do experience social support, trust, and intimacy within these relationships. The children who were used for the early case studies of friendship (Howes, 1981) are now young adults. Informal conversations with these children suggest that their toddler friend partner, although no longer a best friend remains a person of importance in their lives. And, as previously discussed, toddler friend pairs tend to remain stable friends. This suggests that toddler friendships function to provide affective support, rather than functioning merely as a context for play, when the child's life history allows for...

Newly Married Couple

Orientation is the crucial stage, as its success or failure determines whether or not couples can be engaged in therapy. In a secondary setting such as a pain clinic, patients do not come expecting couple or family treatment. Yet the crucial task of this phase is to translate or reframe individual pain or health problems in the family context. This therapist used a simple commonsense explanation that when a spouse had a chronic health problem, it was very unlikely that the well partner would remain unaffected by it. The therapist complimented the patient for bringing her husband and then asked him to explain how Mrs. Erikson's headache was affecting him. The following is a verbatim report of the conversation that occurred between them about the husband's coming to the pain clinic Communication, which many regard to be at the core of any relationship, is also a complex activity. The MMFF divides communication into four categories ranging from most effective (direct and clear) to least...

The Health of the Partners Spouses and the Children

Even a passing review of the literature on the health of caregivers of chronically ill patients provides, ample evidence of the vulnerability of the caregivers on many fronts. One study, for example, found that depression was a major predictor of caregiver well-being in a sample of 142 caregivers of chronically ill family members (Berg-Weger et al., 2000). Depression explained 56 of the variance in activities of daily living, and 64 of the variance in basic needs. Depression also emerged as a mediator between stress and well-being. Another study investigated spouse-caregiver attachment style and the couple's communication style on spouse-caregiver depression and marital satisfaction in a group of 52 couples where one spouse had cancer, Alzheimer's disease, or stroke (Harkness, 1997). The conclusion was that depressive symptoms were common among the caregivers. Women who were anxiously attached, who encountered disagreement from their ill partners after trying to engage them in...

Answers To Case 18 Geriatric Health Maintenance

Summary A 75-year-old man who presents with loss of speech discrimination and complains of difficulty understanding speech and conversation in noisy areas most likely has presbycusis. Presbycusis is age-related sensorineural hearing loss typically associated with both selective high-frequency loss and difficulty with speech discrimination. Physical examination of the ears in patients with presbycusis is normal.

Brain and Mental Function

Many older adults suffer a gradual loss of brain functions, and memory and concentration often diminish with age. About one-third of people above age 80 have significant mental impairment. However, many healthy older people (including some in their late 90s) maintain mental powers equal to younger individuals. Exercising the brain by reading, playing games, crossword puzzles, and lively conversation can help preserve mental ability as we age. In addition, optimum nutrition plays an important role. Brain function, memory, and alertness are significantly better in older adults who have sufficient body reserves of thiamin, riboflavin, and iron, compared with those with marginal status.20 Sub-clinical deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate can cause fatigue, weakness, impaired concentration, and depression, even in the absence of anemia (see Fig. 4.19).12 Supplemental niacin and vitamins E and C may help maintain blood flow through the small blood vessels in the brain.

Adult Recollections Of Childhood

The revelation that meaningful cultural differences exist in both parental conversation styles and young children's narrative reports inspires renewed consideration of cross-cultural data on adult long-term event memory. A number of studies have attested to normative cultural variations in the date of adults' earliest memories and the qualitative characteristics of their autobiographical reports. Further, several studies have been conducted in interdependently oriented cultures some with comparative U.S. samples and speak to the implications of the independent-interdependent distinction for memory. The studies noted below provide clues regarding the way that early socialization may influence long-term memories of childhood. While environmental transitions during childhood may indeed have contributed to the monocul-tural-bicultural difference Otoya recorded in the age of earliest memory, more recent international data has suggested another plausible explanation. This difference may...

What Happens to Communication

Some of the differences in these findings can be explained on methodological grounds, such as differences in the populations studied, sample size, analyses, etc. Another body of research studied family functioning, including communication, in the chronic pain population. I conducted a detailed qualitative investigation into the family lives of chronic back pain and headache sufferers using the McMaster Model of Family Functioning (MMFF) (Roy, 1989a). Communication, according to this model, has two principal components (1) directness, meaning that the recipient understands that the message is meant for her and (2) clarity, meaning that the message is clear. These two dimensions of communication yield four possible types of communication (1) clear and direct (the most effective form of communication (2) clear and indirect (3) masked and direct and (4) masked and indirect (the most ineffective form of communication). Within this model, almost all headache and back pain couples gave...

Distinguishing Two Types Of Narrative

Two common forms of narrative discourse during the preschool years are personal narratives and fantasy stories. In personal narratives children report their personal experiences in contexts like parent-child conversation and dinner-table talk (Aukrust & Snow, 1998 Blum-Kulka, 1997 Ochs, Taylor, Rudolph, & Smith, 1992 Peterson & McCabe, 1992). In fantasy stories children narrate fictional happenings in the context of everyday pretend play, initially with the support of mothers or other older family members, but with increasing autonomy as children get older (Haight & Miller, 1993 Sachs, Goldman, & Chaille, 1984). Competent renditions of these two forms of narrative generally share some important features a focus on a protagonist or protagonists and a set of related actions that these actors carry out the reporting of supportive details such as setting or character attributes the use of a range of strategies for linking events together and tying actions to consequences and the inclusion...

Social Anxiety Disorder

The essential feature of social phobia is a marked and persistent fear of performance situations when patients feel they will be the centre of attention and will do something humiliating or embarrassing. The situations that provoke this fear can be quite specific, for example public speaking, or be of a much more generalised nature involving fear of most social interactions, for example initiating or maintaining conversations, participating in small groups, dating, speaking to anyone in authority. Exposure to the feared situation almost invariably provokes anxiety with similar symptoms to those experienced by patients with panic attacks but some seem to be particularly prominent and difficult i.e. blushing, tremor, sweating and a feeling of 'drying up' when speaking.

The Case of Mrs Allan How Can I Bother My Husband

Investigation of her family and social situation revealed some startling facts. Three persons she had been close to had died within the past few months. She denied any feelings of grief and generally minimized these losses. She and her husband had not talked about these deaths. She did not wish to waste his time with her problems. He was in a critical stage with his research, and she felt he should be left alone. This led the therapist to a conversation about her pain and how she was coping. She said she was trying to carry on as normally as possible, but at times it was very hard to do so. She did not get much help from her husband, but her mother helped out every now and again. Was her husband aware of her health problems He knew that she had horrible headaches that could last for days, but quite often she did not tell him when she was in bad pain.

The Quality of Friendships Quantitative Data Gender and Ethnic Differences

Studies have found that the quality of friendships do vary by gender and ethnicity race. Jones, et al. (1994), for example, explored friendship quality among Mexican American, African American, and European American sixth and ninth graders and found that African American males were more likely to reveal their personal thoughts and feelings with their male friends than were Mexican American and European American boys. Furthermore, significant gender differences in levels of self-disclosure in their same-sex friendships were only apparent among European American adolescents European American girls were more likely to reveal their personal thoughts and feelings to their friends than were European American boys. Similarly, in their study of Black and White, socio-economically diverse, middle school children, Dubois and Hirsch (1990) showed White girls as reporting significantly more supportive friendships than White boys. No gender differences were detected among Black youth. Black boys...

Extension of the Matching

This equality of the rates of both response and reinforcement is called a law of behavior, because it describes how a variety of organisms choose among alternatives (de Villiers, 1977). Animals such as pigeons (Davison & Ferguson, 1978), wagtails (Houston, 1986), cows (Matthews & Temple, 1979), and rats (Poling, 1978) have demonstrated matching in choice situations. Interestingly, this same law applies to humans in a number of different settings (Bradshaw & Szabadi, 1988 Pierce & Epling, 1983). Reinforcers have ranged from food (Herrnstein, 1961b) to points that are subsequently exchanged for money (Bradshaw, Ruddle, & Szabadi, 1981). Behavior has been as diverse as lever pressing by rats (Norman & McSweeney, 1978) and conversation in humans (Conger & Killeen, 1974 Pierce, Epling, & Greer, 1981). Environments in which matching has been observed have included T-mazes, operant chambers, and open spaces with free-ranging flocks of birds (Baum, 1974a) as well as discrete-trial and free...

Remote Past

Use of the system today differs around the world. In the United States, only scientists and the military use a true 24-hour system businesses and ordinary citizens follow a double 12-hour system with 12 hours before noon (ante meridiem a.m. ) and 12 hours after noon (post meridiem p.m. ), as indicated in Figure 1.2. In many other parts of the world, official times are given in the 24-hour system (such as 20 30 hours for a dinner invitation), but a 12-hour system is used in informal conversation (such as 8 30 at night for an informal get-together with friends). American military notation usually omits the colon between hours and minutes (that is, 5 35 p.m. 1735 hours).

Behavior Analysis

The principle of discrimination may be extended to human behavior and social reinforcement. You may discuss dating with Carmen, but not with Tracey, because Carmen is interested in such conversation, whereas Tracey is not. In a classroom, the principle of discrimination can be used to improve teaching and learning. The use of behavior principles to solve practical problems is called applied behavior analysis and is discussed at some length in chapter 13.


From a practical point of view, we live in an age when any conversation about family must begin with a discussion about family structure in all its diversity. This is crucial because some of the assumptions that underlie systems-based family therapy, such as the symptom being a product of intrafamilial conflict, may not hold. Apart from that, certain family types, such as blended families, do not get adequate attention in the literature. In a review of the clinical literature, Darden and Zimmerman (1992) found that only 10 of 1061 articles in three of the major family therapy journals between 1979 and 1990 were on blended families. A cursory review of the more recent family treatment literature with blended families shows a similar paucity.

Using Questions

When you ask a question, in any context, you take control of the conversation. Questions, by definition, are directive and are an integral part of human communication. In the context of clinical interviewing, questions constitute a technique and deserve our scrutiny. Asking questions, especially if you are interested in particular information, can be hard to resist. Unfortunately, as in the case of The Little Prince, there is also no guarantee that the questions you ask (and their corresponding answers) are of any interest whatsoever to the person being questioned.


Which is known by the curious title of 'extending the conversation' (or 'extending the argument'). Example 2.2 shows these expressions follow naturally from considering the full 'joint' distribution over all possible combinations of events. Example 2.2 Prognosis Marginalisation and extending the conversation Suppose we wish to determine the probability of survival (up to a specified point in time) following a particular cancer diagnosis, given that it depends on the stage of disease at diagnosis amongst other factors. Whilst directly specifying the probability of surviving, denoted b, may be difficult, by extending the conversation to include whether the cancer was at an early stage, denoted a, or not, denoted a, we obtain from (2.1),

The Professors Wife

Simm, in her early fifties, presented with a 2-year history of severe muscle-contraction-type headache. She appeared much older than her years, seemed underweight, and was poorly dressed. In contrast, her husband, who accompanied her, was elegantly attired, wore a confident air, and looked much younger than his wife. He dominated the conversation and did much of the talking on behalf of his wife. He was clinical and impersonal in his description of her problems he talked about her as though she were a colleague rather than his wife. Mrs. Simm sat silently through his tirade, weeping quietly. She made a rather revealing statement toward the end of this session, stating that she did not know how to deal with this situation. This situation was a reference to her husband's cool and critical evaluation of her, which encompassed every aspect of her life. This was her second marriage and his first. In the course of the therapy, many significant facts emerged. Mr. Simm was very critical...

Operant Behavior

Operant behavior is commonly described as intentional, free, voluntary, or willful. Examples of operant behavior include conversations with others, driving a car, taking notes, reading a book, and painting a picture. From a scientific perspective, operant behavior is lawful and may be analyzed in terms of its relationship to environmental events. Formally, responses that produce a change in the environment and increase in frequency due to that change are called operants. The term operant comes from the verb to operate and refers to behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences that in turn strengthen the behavior. The consequences of operant behavior are many and varied and occur across all sensory dimensions. When you turn on a light, dial a telephone, drive a car, or open a door, these operants result in visual clarity, conversation, reaching a destination, and entering a room. A positive reinforcer is defined as any consequence that increases the probability of...

Case Illustrations

In terms of communication, both children became distant from their father. Mr. Yost was very proud of his relationship with his son, so when the son refused to be driven by his father, Mr. Yost was very hurt. His daughter also became distant and said very little. She felt that her father refused to see things from her point of view. So why engage him in conversation Mother at all times took the side of the children. Mr. Yost withdrew and started acting out in inappropriate and even dangerous ways.


Weiner (1998) identifies five common forms of resistant behavior (a) reducing the amount of time spent in the treatment (b) restricting the amount or range of conversation (c) isolating the therapy from real life (d) acting out and (e) flight into health (p. 178). Reducing time spent in treatment may consist of arriving late, leaving early, missing appointments, or terminating therapy prematurely. Restricting conversation in therapy occurs when clients avoid talking about or refuse to talk about certain topics. One young man we worked with adamantly refused to discuss any aspect of his past this blatantly resistant behavior was extremely difficult to work through. Isolating therapy from real life occurs when clients deny or minimize the relevance therapy has for their lives (Wilkes, Belsher, Rush, & Frank, 1994). Examples of resistant acting out may involve client activities such as leaving a therapy session abruptly, calling the therapist at home, or behaving in a sexually or...

Spin 10789389

Finally, a short note on the history of this book. Over the last 11 years, the editors have collaborated closely on various projects on cancer epidemiology and prevention and on methodological issues related to error in the measurement of intermediate endpoints for cancer. The decision to jointly edit this book was taken about two years ago and was a natural consequence of this long-standing collaboration. Bringing this writing and editing project to bear fruit required more hours and exchanges of electronic mail messages and phone conversations than we care to count. The order of our names on the masthead reflects nothing other than a simple alphabetical listing. We both enjoyed producing this tome immensely, and we sincerely hope that the reader will find it a valuable resource.

Donor Suitability

Permission for heart donation is usually obtained in writing or via a taped, documented telephone conversation with the donor's legal next of kin, even if a potential donor carries an organ donor card. Alternatively, a self-signed donor document can be accepted as long as it is in accordance with the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act and applicable state and local regulations. Once permission is obtained, the donor must be adequately screened to minimize any potential transfer of an infectious disease.


To ensure competence and continued effort toward life-enhancing goals, the environment must provide sensory data that engage attention and provide information (i.e., stimulation). According to Kagan (1984), the main catalyst for environmentally-mediated change is stimulation. Indeed, there is an abundance of both psychological theory and empirical data to buttress the significance of stimulation for cognitive, psychomotor, and social development (Horowitz, 1987 Shonkoff & Phillips, 2002). Illustrative evidence of the value of stimulation comes from studies of parent talk. The research of Hart & Risley (1995) and Hoff (2003) provide compelling documentation of the value of providing children more labels for objects, responding contingently to children's speech, making efforts to elicit conversation from children, sustaining conversations with children, and just talking to them more often.

The Introduction

As you can see from this example, the caller informs the person scheduling the appointment that although he is not personally motivated to pursue counseling, he is quite motivated by his wife's ultimatum. In cases where one party has made an ultimatum, the less motivated party sometimes makes the call. The less motivated party also usually makes his or her attitude known early in the telephone conversation. This can also be true when the more motivated person makes the call. For example Despite prospective dangers, try to make a few comments and engage in small talk when greeting couples in the waiting room. Stick with relatively neutral trivia, shake hands with both people, and generally avoid comments that might be interpreted as too personal or as evidence that you like or identify more with one client than the other. When someone calls to request help with a situation that might best be handled by family therapy, it is advisable to arrange a time when all family members can be...

What Is Evolution

Much more controversial in society than the process. Some of the controversy is generated by the use of the word theory. When people use the word in everyday conversation, they often are referring to a tentative explanation with little systematic support. A sports fan might have a theory about why her team is losing, or a gardener might have a theory about why his roses fail to bloom. Usually, these ideas amount to a best guess regarding the cause of some phenomenon. A scientific theory is much more substantial it is a body of scientifically acceptable general principles that help explain how the world works. Scientific theories are supported by numerous lines of evidence and have stood up to repeated experimental tests. For instance, the theory of gravity explains the motion of the planets atomic theory explains the interactions between chemical elements and molecules and the theory of relativity explains the relationship between mass and energy, which led directly to the development...


Each of my interviews was semi-structured. In advance of each interview, I developed a guide to help direct the conversation. These guides did not articulate the exact questions that I would ask or the order in which I would raise particular issues, but rather provided an outline of themes that I wanted to cover during the course of the interview. This technique helped me ensure that I covered all issues of particular interest to me while also providing flexibility to tailor the interview according to the responses of the interviewee. It also allowed me to conduct the interview in the form of a conversation This was particularly important, I thought, because it might elicit more genuine responses and diminish the awkwardness of a formal interview. While each interview guide varied according to the individual I was interviewing, most focused on the individual's role in the

From dazzle to doubt

On one occasion I asked her about why she did not seem to draw family trees when the patient came for their appointment in the way that I had seen all clinicians, as well as other nurses in the family history clinic, undertake. With a touch of irony in her voice she said, 'Oh no, I leave that to the young ones, all those new fangled things', confirming that for her, she felt her skills lay elsewhere. Nevertheless a sense of discomfort about the movement towards more predictive interventions, that she had witnessed over the course of the last 5 years, emerged in conversations and interviews with her during my research.


Making predictions is one of the fundamental objectives of statistical modelling, and a Bayesian approach can make this task reasonably straightforward. Suppose we wish to predict some future observations x on the basis of currently observed data y. Then the distribution we require is p(x y), and (2.8) shows we can extend the conversation to include unknown parameters 0 by

Creative Arts

There is no evidence, however, that music functions as a better distraction than other stimuli or activities that engage attention, and it has not been established that music has any other pain-relieving or desensitizing effects. Almost any kind of auditory stimulus, including conversation, a cat's purr, or even street noise, will distract a child to some extent an appropriate placebo is thus essential in evaluating a musical intervention. Yet, as discussed in the next Subheading, few studies have included such a control condition.

Gene patents

The problems this posed for the charity in question were indicated by an informal conversation I had with a member of the research services team a few months before. Returning from a meeting with other members of this group, Susan was agitated and also animated in relation to the fact that the issue about patents was, as she said, 'about to be blown sky high'. The problem was, she explained, that the charity had not yet developed a public policy stance on these development, adding that 'I can't begin to think about how we could discuss this issue in the newsletter, it's so vast'. When the work of the charity was very much associated with science as 'hope for the future', the patenting of genes forced an engagement with complex issues of ownership, commerce and control, in relation to scientific knowledge and technology. In the words of one MP, in a parliamentary debate about gene patents at this time, gene patents were 'the dark horses of the genetics revolution' (Hansard Papers Jan...

Altum Angels

Several populations of angelfish have been called altum angels. The status of these fishes, based on conversations with Heiko Ble-her, sheds considerable light on the distribution of the true altum angelfish. What of the other altum angels from Peru and from the Rio Negro According to Blehcr and others, the Peruvian altum is a high-bodied population of P. scalare. Most important, Bleher states that the high-bodied form in the upper Rio Negro that resembles P. altum in fact is a variant of P. scalare, or something else still unnamed, and it is considerably smaller and less imposing than the true P. altum, which occurs only in the Orinoco.

The Choice Paradigm

Human Coin Despensor

Concurrent schedules of reinforcement have received considerable research attention, because they may be used as an analytical tool for understanding choice and preference. This selection of an experimental paradigm or model is based on the reasonable assumption that contingencies of reinforcement contribute substantially to choice behavior. Simply stated, all other factors being equal, the more reinforcement provided by an alternative, the more time and energy spent on that alternative. For example, in choosing between spending an evening with two friends, the one who has in the past provided the most social reinforcement will probably be the one selected. Reinforcement may be social approval, affection, interesting conversation, or other aspects of the friend's behavior. The experience of deciding to spend the evening with one rather than the other may be something like, I just feel like spending the evening with John. Of course, in everyday life, choosing is seldom as uncomplicated...


In a broad sense, parents who habitually engage in more nonpresent and related-to-present talk with their young children provide more opportunities for children to learn to represent past events, to report intentions, feelings, and reactions, and to tie experiences in one context to those in another. All of these, we believe, are skills that are critical to later autonomous narrative production. As children become more capable of extended nonpresent talk, parents' topic extensions begin to include more specific prompts for information about narrative participants, setting, consequences, and resolutions, elements of narrative structure that our most successful children were able to produce independently at age 5. Thus, the relationships demonstrated between nonpresent talk at 20 and 32 months and the production of narrative structure and evaluation at 5 years of age, both in personal narrative and in fantasy play, reflect interactional histories that go beyond specific narrative...

Future Directions

The work described here is limited in a number of respects and only begins to scratch the surface of children's abilities to tell different kinds of stories. As is true of the vast bulk of spontaneous-language based research, the dyads studied here were primarily from white, English-speaking, middle-class families. Data on parent-child conversations in low-income and racial ethnic minority families are woefully scarce, and for the most part have not been analyzed from a pragmatic perspective we know little about the early language experiences of children in such families and how those experiences may be related to narrative and other discourse skills children bring to kindergarten. Greater depth of information is also needed about the naturally-occurring fantasy talk of children from all backgrounds in interaction with peers and siblings, and in small group as well as dyadic contexts. Mother-child verbal interaction, though indisputably important, is only one of many communicative...

Mitral Valve Surgery

As a simple guide to determine the optimal training level, the results of the exercise test and, in some cases, the exercise hemodynamics are very useful. The level of activity or exercise that is still associated with normal hemodynamics can be taken as a guide for leisure-time activities. If hemodynamics are not available, a rating of perceived exertion such as the Borg scale29 or the so-called talk test are valuable measurements of the intensity of exertion. The talk test refers to that level of exertion at which the patient can still hold a small talk conversation.

Spontaneous Conversation

Spontaneous Conversation

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