The bronchial arterial system arises from the systemic circulation directly off the aorta and its branches. It empties primarily into the pulmonary veins and a lesser bronchial vein system that enters the azygos venous system on the right and hemiazygos on the left. The origins of the bronchial arteries are variable and come from the aorta, intercostal arteries and occasionally subclavian and innominante arteries. In most people, there is one bronchial artery on the right and two on the left, although there may be one on each side or two on each side. The major source on the right is from the first or sometimes the second intercostal artery. On the left, the bronchial arteries usually take their origin directly from the aorta.
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