Empyema

Fritz J. Baumgartner

The management of empyema can be a difficult and often confusing subject. There are several fundamental questions that must be answered (Table 13.1). Is it acute or chronic? Is there a space problem which requires obliteration? Is there a bronchopleural fistula? Is this a postoperative problem? The individual management depends on the answers to these questions.

The etiology of empyema is most commonly a result of lung abscess or pneumonia. The second most common etiology is post-surgical after lobectomy or pneumonectomy. Other causes include spontaneous pneumothorax, retained foreign body, or a subdiaphragmatic process causing supradiaphragmatic empyema.

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.

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