Pulmonary Venous System

The venous drainage of the lung is more variable than the arterial pattern. There are two major venous trunks from both lungs — the superior and inferior pulmonary veins.

Fig 11.3. Bronchoscopic anatomy of the lung. Right upper lobe: B1-apical segment; B2-post segment; B3-ant segment. Middle lobe: B4-lat segment; B5-med segment. Lower lobe: B6-sup segment; B7-med segment; B8-ant segment; B9-lat segment; BlO-post segment. Left upper lobe: B1 & 2-apical & post seg; B3-ant segment. Lingula: B4-sup segment; B5 inf segment. Lower lobe: B6-sup segment; B8-ant segment; B9-lat segment; BlO-post segment. From: Olympus Chart; Kenkichi Oho, MD, PhD; Tokyo Medical College.

Fig 11.4. Anatomy of the right pulmonary artery.

POSH. RECURRENT

POSH. RECURRENT

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Fig 11.5. Anatomy of the left pulmonary artery.

Fig 11.5. Anatomy of the left pulmonary artery.

On the right side, the superior pulmonary vein lies anterior and inferior to the pulmonary artery. The upper lobe pulmonary vein and middle lobe pulmonary vein drain into the right superior pulmonary vein. On occasion, the middle lobe pulmonary vein may enter the pericardium and drain into the atrium as a separate vessel and even more rarely is a tributary of the inferior pulmonary vein. The inferior pulmonary vein is inferior and posterior to the superior vein and drains the lower lobe. The inferior pulmonary vein is at the superiormost portion of the inferior pulmonary ligament; this is an anatomical point of major surgical significance.

On the left side, there is again a left superior pulmonary vein and a left inferior pulmonary vein. As on the right, the superior pulmonary vein is anterior and inferior to the left pulmonary artery. The left inferior pulmonary vein, as on the right, is located inferiorly and posteriorly to the superior vein at the upper most portion of the inferior pulmonary ligament.

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.

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