The etiology of low urine outputrenal failure Prerenal factors

Under this grouping are problems with the delivery of blood to the kidney that results in a drop of urine output. This is described as a "pre-renal failure" type problem. Conditions which lead to this problem are hypovolemia, low cardiac output and cardiac tamponade.

Renal factors

Under this condition are problems which result in direct injury to the kidney parenchyma and cause decreased urine output. Under these conditions we find the following:

1) Acute tubular necrosis which occurs secondary to prolonged low flow state, hemolysis with resultant hemoglobinurea and toxic injury to the kidney tubular system, and chemical injury to the kidney tubular system from agents such as Gentamycin, angiographic dye, etc.

2) Embolic injury to the kidney caused by particulate emboli occurring during cardiopulmonary bypass or from clots or atherosclerotic debris released from an indwelling intra-aortic balloon pump.

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