Professional Makeup For Beginners

Make-up For Beginners

Make-Up for Beginners: Learn Doing Make-Up like a Pro is an online course created by Lana Vallo. It helps individuals do their makeups in a professional way such that they are durable, last for long and enhance beauty. It transforms you into an expert that other people will turn to for help over and over. Subscribing to this program guarantees you more beautiful than ever before. The course was designed following an increasing demand for brand-neutral, timely, and professional advice on the skill of makeup. Enrolling to the course does not require any special tool or requirements. Nonetheless, once you are done with the sessions you will require professional makeup brushes and other necessary tools including a complete makeup kit. It will also be necessary that you find a model for putting into practice all the strategies covered by the video tutorials, especially if you aspire to do makeups for other individuals. This is a fantastic program with thousands of positive reviews. It will significantly improve your skills and make you an expert in the makeup industry. Payment is processed via ClickBank and the product has a 60-day warranty. Read more...

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Body Art and Cosmetics

Women, Cloth, and Society in Early Times (New York Norton, 1994). Chandra, Moti, Costumes, Textiles, Cosmetics and Coiffure in Ancient and Medieval India (Delhi Oriental Publishers, Indian Archaeological Society, 1973). Ebin, Victoria, The Body Decorated (London Thames & Hudson, 1979). Sagarin, Edward (ed.), Cosmetics, Science and Technology (New York Interscience, 1957).

The Success Of Molecular Biology

All this suddenly changed when the structure of DNA became known. The success of scientists in unraveling the makeup of the long, complex molecules that are the basis of life led to a discipline dominated by research techniques and thinking appropriate to hard science. It used to be said that such an ap

Nucleic Acid Molecule Determination As Tumor Markers

Thus, too much has been expected of gene markers for cancer diagnostics the development of most cancers involves a complex series of steps (34), and the genes themselves do not reflect any physiological state in the body. A recent study on identical twins has revealed that cancer is weakly influenced by genetic makeup. That means nurture is more important than nature's encoding (35). The possible targets of nucleic acid determination with regards to cancer so far are as follows

Toolkits for Genetic Testing

In this chapter, we shall see how these differences in the provision of health care, coupled with different approaches to university-industry relationships and specifically, the emergence of the biotechnology industry, have led to very different histories of genetic medicine in the two countries. Although medical genetics has very similar origins in the United States and Britain, with early institutionalization of specialized genetics clinics in hospitals and controversial eugenics movements that sought to use hereditary information to control the genetic makeup and health of future populations, their histories began to diverge in the 1960s as the field began to grow beyond these origins. Different philosophies of health care and approaches to the commercialization of research findings led genetic medicine in different directions in the two countries and eventually, created very different toolkits to be employed in the development of BRCA testing.

Defining Interviewer Attractiveness

How you would like your interviewer to look Would your ideal interviewer be male or female How would he or she dress What type of facial expressions would you like to see Lots of smiles Do you want an expressive interviewer One with open body posture A more serious demeanor Imagine all sorts of details (e.g., use of makeup, type of shoes, length of hair).

Other Laboratory Test Results That Correspond With Liver Disorders

In addition to their properties as ampholytes, proteins also have other representative structural properties based on their polymer makeup and bonding. Fibrous proteins are stringlike in configuration and usually function as structural components of the body, such as fibrinogen and collagen. Most plasma proteins and enzymes are globular proteins, which are spherical in configuration.

Time and cost of drug development

Isolation of chemical compounds of value to the pharmaceutical or cosmetics industries can prove extraordinarily lucrative. Global sales of pharmaceuticals have been estimated at US 300 billion a year, of which the component derived from genetic resources accounts for between 75 billion and 150 billion (ten Kate and Laird, 1999). A compound derived from a sea sponge to treat herpes was estimated a few years ago to be worth US 50 million to 100 million annually. Current estimates of the potential value of anti-cancer agents found in marine organisms range to well over US 1 billion a year. The full potential of marine organisms to produce valuable compounds is unknown, because so few have been tested and because the ocean floor is largely unexplored. If regulators and policy makers think protecting local rights to plant genetic resources is a challenge, they have only to consider the complexities of marine life, its trans-boundary habits and its untapped potential to realize that...

Periodontitis In Adults

Clinicians have long suspected that susceptibility to periodontitis differs among racial and ethnic groups. In the U.S. African-Americans have more severe disease than Caucasians. s Elsewhere, Sri Tankans and South Pacific islanders appear to be more prone to disease than other groups with similar environments.' Although these differences may be clue to unrecognized environmental factors, they also may be the result of differences in genetic makeup.

Summary and Conclusion

In recent years, a growing number of physiological and biological roles have been ascribed to hyaluronan in addition to is role as an essential structural component of the ECM. Its rheological properties have led to an increasing number of applications for hyaluronan in the pharmaceutical industry. Hyaluronan preparations from different biological sources are finding applications in ophthalmology, cosmetics and drug delivery. The chemical modification of hyaluronan to alter its physical properties has also led to important applications

Maternal Immune Response to Trophoblast GTD and Cancer

The trophoblast is mostly derived from the paternal genome. Variations of this genomic makeup can result in unfavorable consequences. Classical studies conducted by Surani et al. 1 have shown in mice that the absence of the maternal genome in the fertilized egg leads to the development of a large trophoblast. In contrast, lack of the paternal genome and expression of only the maternal genome led to the development of the embryo, but almost no trophoblast. However, in both instances, this unilateral gene expression is incompatible with life and leads, inevitably, to fetal demise at mid gestation or even earlier. Such evidence supports the necessity of both maternal and paternal genomes as ingredients for successful reproduction. This then raises a fundamental question of how a paternal genome dependent structure the trophoblast which has a foreign genetic make up and is in close proximity to the maternal surface, is capable of surviving and thriving, rather than being summarily...

New Model for Sustained Signaling Through the Immunological Synapse

Directed secretion is a hallmark of the neural synapses and is one of the most compelling parallels between the IS and neural synapse (Dustin and Colman 2002). Early studies on the mechanism of T cell-mediated killing suggested that killing worked by exocytosis of preformed granules containing lytic molecules with activity-like complement (Young et al. 1986). It was later found that the primary role of perforin was to induce the target cell to take a poison pill by introducing granzyme A or B into the cytoplasm, which initiates a proapoptotic caspase cascade (Darmon et al. 1995). Evidence that T cell polarity was related to directed secretion was provided by the seminal studies of Geiger and Kupfer, showing that the microtubule organizing center and Golgi apparatus reorients toward the target cell for killing (Geiger et al. 1982 Kupfer et al. 1983). Kupfer continued with a series of studies on the molecular makeup of the T cell B cell interface with the first description of CD4,...

Flower Power and Multiculturalism

Another hidden link with older radicals was through pure food movements, and the campaign for 'real' and organic foods. Alternative food reform was accompanied by 'purist' cookery using authentic recipes and ingredients from the world's peasant cuisines (also peasant or traditional beauty receipts), and took over the marketing of naturopathic macrobiotic foods in a surge of small 'health food' producers and cooperative outlets selling yoghurt, muesli, lentils, wholemeal bread, brown rice, organic vegetables, and natural cosmetics older naturopathic outlets were often saved from extinction.38 Starting in the 1980s, ethnic cuisines, organic products, and an

Pandoras patent box Fighting for the right to own genes and genetic inventions

Genetic modification of animal life (the 'Harvard mouse' is a controversial example) has drawn attention to the need to address demands to allow patents on living creatures. Pharmaceutical companies and bioprospectors collecting on their behalf have been actively patenting processes to develop drugs and cosmetics derived from research based on aquatic genetic resources that range from marine invertebrates to algae. Patenting of new fish varieties (such as the Super Salmon and Arctic char varieties) and of processes used in their development has been more limited but can be expected to increase significantly as the aquaculture industry expands. The US Patent and Trademark Office led the way by approving a patent protecting a method of increasing the growth rate of a transgenic salmon (Correa, 1999).

Physiological Regulation

Brown Adipose Tissue And Thermogenesis

Of the total energy expenditure for DIT, about one-third is ascribable to stimulation of BAT or to futile cycles to produce extra heat. Thus, DIT consists of adaptive thermogenesis together with thermogenesis induced by cold exposure. This adaptive thermogenesis, which responds to temperature and diet, is highly variable and is influenced by genetic makeup. It is regulated by brain activity throughout the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), an important efferent pathway.

Synthesis Of Gold Titania And Zinc Oxide

Synthesis of titania had always been a subject of interest to the chemical and biochemical industries because titania possesses versatile properties, extensively harnessed by a wide range of industries. Substantial literature asserts the ability of titania to be used as an exemplary catalyst 10-17 , finding applications in the decomposition of organic pollutants, in water purification installations, in the paint and polymer industry, the pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industry (UV absorber).

Plant Biotechnology Is Centuries

By the first decade of the twentieth century, plant scientists had recognized the relationship between plant breeding and the inheritance of characteristics in succeeding plant generations. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology in 1973, the ability to tailor the genetic makeup of plants became possible. Conventional plant breeding has subsequently given way to the sophisticated techniques of genetic manipulation.

Cycloinulohexaose Derivatives

Cycloinulohexaose can be derivatized to additional structures of interest (Figure 5.8), e.g., fructo-sylated branched cyclic inulooligosaccharides (Kushibe and Morimoto, 1994), or cross-linked to give a solid electrolyte (Shimofusachi, 1998). When esterified to fatty, benzoic, or other acids, cycloinulohexaose can potentially be used as an oily base, oily gelation agent, or film-forming agent for cosmetics (Shimizu and Suzuki, 1996). Modification of cycloinulohexaose via sulfony-lation of the primary hydroxyl with 2-naphthalenesulfonyl chloride yields three possible isomers (30 to 32) (Atsumi et al., 1994). Subsequent treatment with thiophenol Cs2CO3 yields the sulfite of each isomer (33 to 35). Cycloinulohexaose may also be permethylated, peracetylated, or per-benzoylated (Takai et al., 1994).

On The Applied Side The Token Economy

The women were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Women in the control group received tokens no matter what they did (i.e., noncontingent reinforcement). Patients in the contingent reinforcement group obtained tokens for specific classes of behavior. Tokens could be traded for a variety of privileges and luxuries. The response classes were personal hygiene, job performance, and social interaction. For example, a patient earned tokens when she spoke pleasantly to others during group therapy. A social response like Good morning, how are you resulted in a ward attendant giving her a token and praising her effort. Other responses that were reinforced included personal hygiene like attractive use of cosmetics, showering, and generally maintaining a well-groomed appearance. Finally, tokens were earned for specified jobs such as wiping tables and vacuuming carpets and furniture.

Scientific Foundations

Companies manufacture cosmetics for different skin types. Skin type is determined by an individual's cellular activity. People with oily skin, for instance, have overactive oil-producing cells. Cleansers for oily skin contain substances that act as oil solvents and are effective at cleaning the pores of the skin. Moisturizers, designed to reduce skin dryness, typically use skin-friendly substances, such as milk. The skin cells absorb the active ingredient of the product to produce the softening effects. Certain chemical peels used as anti-wrinkle agents effectively remove the upper dead cell layers of the skin, thereby leaving it smooth and erasing fine lines. Most cosmetics work in similar ways, either by being absorbed by skin cells or by removing dead skin cells.

Ancient Roman Cosmetic Unearthed

Although cosmetics are used widely, there are growing safety concerns. Many cosmetics, especially those that contain chemicals, are known to cause various side effects. Some cosmetics may also run a high risk of bacterial contamination. Consequently, countries have formulated laws governing the sale and monitoring of cosmetics. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has limited regulatory control of cosmetics sold in the United States. The FDA has no premarket approval authority and does not do premarket testing on cosmetics, but may take action if a cosmetic product is adulterated or misbranded in a way that adversely affects consumers. In the United States cosmetics manufacturers must meet certain safety guidelines before their products can be sold to consumers, but the firms themselves are ultimately responsible for the ingredients in and safety of their products. Biotechnology has contributed to the development of cosmetics that not only beautify but that also have a...

Other Solutions To Promote Innovation Free Sharing Of Snp Information

Several genetic diseases have already been shown to be the product of SNPs, sequence variations that occur when a single nucleotide in a sequence is altered. It is believed that SNPs could be partially responsible for genetic conditions, predispose individuals to disease, or influence metabolism of, and responses to, drugs, toxins, or infectious agents. Using array methodology to study SNPs should permit scientists to establish additional correlations and associations of multiple genes that jointly contribute to these conditions. SNP analysis may also help to predict the action of drug candidates, and the effect of genetic makeup on the mode of drug action. This makes the use of arrays to study SNPs of great value in new drug discovery, and many arrays are designed for genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

Phenotype Genotype and Environment

The genotype refers to the actual genetic makeup of the organism. Some observable characteristics are largely determined by genotype, while other features are strongly influenced by experience. But, as shown in Figure 14.3, most result from an interaction of genes and environment. Thus, the height of a person is attributable to both genes and nutrition. Evolution only occurs when the phenotypic differences among individuals are based on differences in genotype. If differences in height or other features did not result from genetic differences, selection for tallness (or shortness) could not occur. This is because there would be no genes for height to pass on to the next generation. People who engage in bodybuilding by lifting weights and taking steroids may substantially increase their muscle size (phenotype), but this characteristic will not be passed on to their children. Natural selection can only work when there are genes that underlie physical features.

Fighting Terrorism and Buying Food with Biometrics

Voice recognition uses the characteristics of a person's voice such as tempo, frequency, pitch, and tone. Gait analyzes the walking style of a person. Typing patterns measure the keystroke style of a person including the amount of time taken between typed words. Signatures are used because each person signs his her name in a distinct way. DNA analyzes an individual's genetic makeup.

Atomic Molecular Properties and 2D3D Structural Descriptors

Pharmacophore Triplets

The diversity-related use was based on thdhypothesis that sampling over all potential pharmacophores leads to diversity in a biologically relevant space, in contrast to some other methods that focus on chemical diversity. The descriptor thus generated identifies in a sys-tennatic way all the potential pharmacophores thtit a molecule could exhibit. Triplet (three-point) and quartet (four-point) pharmacophore representations have been extensively used (inaddition to two-point 2D approaches), with a variety of features sampled at each point and interfeature distances considered in a discrete set of ranges ( bins ) (see Fig. 5.2). The ability of pharmacophores to divorce the thrnee-dimensional structural requirements for biological activity from the two-dimensional chemical makeup of a ligand has been fhlighted in a recent review (34). In an initial implementation from the authors (35), a set of 5916 three-point pharmacophore queries was generated and used to setirch a database....

Gene Environment Correlations

Passive gene-environment correlation arises when the parental genetic makeup influences both the child's genotype and the rearing environment provided for the child. For example, a child may inherit his or her mother's depressogenic genes, together with being exposed to a repertoire of negative parenting styles. Evocative processes apply when a child's genetic propensities elicit, through cognitive variables or temperamental traits, certain reactions from other people. Thus infants who are frequently crying and irritable may evoke more negative responses from their parents than cheerful, smiling babies may. Finally, active types of gene-environment correlation occur when individuals select, modify, or construct their experiences based on genetically mediated dispositions, such as personality traits. Sociable youngsters may choose to spend more of their time with other children, thus increasing the levels of social contact in their environment, while inhibited children may spend more...

Variability in Micronutrient Requirements among Individuals

Put simply, each person has unique nutritional requirements. Depending on one's individual genetic makeup, striking variability can exist in the body's biochemistry. A nutrient intake sufficient for one person may be inadequate for another. For example, 2 mg day of vitamin B6 is adequate for good health in most people, yet some individuals with inherited defects in vitamin B6 metabolism need up to 30 to 100 times this amount.25 The absorption and daily requirement for calcium can vary four- to fivefold among healthy middle-aged women.26 Normal plasma concentrations for 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (the activated form of the vitamin) vary between 15 and 45 pg ml in healthy adults.9 In the 10 of the population who are heterozygous for the hemochromatosis gene (see pp. 68), dietary iron intakes that normally maintain health may be toxic in the long-term.27

Organization Of Blood Services

Most countries oversee quality and compliance of blood collection through a governmental regulatory body. In Australia, the Therapeutic Goods Administration regulates the not-for-profit Red Cross. In Germany, the Paul Ehrlich Institute regulates a pluralistic system of blood providers. In the United States, collection and transfusion practices are governed both by federal statute and regulation as well as by voluntary accreditation. AABB accreditation employs a peer-review process that requires that members adhere to Standards for Blood Banks and Transfusion Services, a set of voluntary standards now in its twenty-third printing (Fridey, 2003). The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) and the College of American Pathologists also enforce voluntary standards for transfusion and laboratory practices (College of American Pathologists, 2004 Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 2004). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), a...

Imaging Technologies And Methods

MRI can distinguish atherosclerotic plaque components based upon physical and chemical properties such as water content, molecular motion, energy and physical state, diffusion, motion as well as chemical makeup and concentration (27). The acquisition times for MRI scans have been significantly reduced thanks to dedicated pulse sequences that facilitate multi-slice imaging (20,21,23,28-30). Furthermore, black-blood MRI methods allow for accurate imaging of the arterial wall without blood-related or blood-flow artifacts (31-33).

Infection As An Alternate Hypothesis For Ms

Historical descriptions of disease that have features of MS have been known for over 300 years, although MS was described as a clinical entity only 125 years ago. The tenets of evolutionary fitness would suggest that MS is caused by environmental agents and, therefore, most likely is infectious. MS has been found to have an uneven geographical distribution in a north-south gradient of declining incidence.(10,29) It has been thought that some of this variation may be due to underlying racial differences the highly susceptible populations such as Scandinavians settled primarily in the northern United States. However, in Australia the racial makeup of their population is largely homogeneous south

Within Task Learning versus Previously Acquired Knowledge Revisited

The second inquiry was whether the spontaneous preference for female faces was due to higher contrast of the internal features, possibly resulting from females' greater use of cosmetics. The first control experiment with faces without hair was thus repeated, but in this instance, the faces were inverted. The reasoning was that if the female preference was due to higher contrast of the internal features, then the preference should be preserved with the inversion manipulation, because the internal features are present in both upright and inverted faces. The result was that the infants no longer preferred the female faces, suggesting that the spontaneous preference depends on processing of the internal features in their upright orientation.

Barnett Foster 23 F0r8t0n Street Shepherdess Walk

The term 'soft drink' applies to beverages containing flavourings and or fruit juices together with other constituents of technological or nutritional value designed to enhance the appearance and stability of the product and to ensure its organoleptic properties remain intact during a reasonable shelf life. These factors are taken into consideration in all development work, and in order to meet current stringent quality and legislative controls a new beverage is subjected to extensive trials to assess the suitability and performance of all components in its makeup. It becomes essential to arrive at the correct ingredient formulation to achieve a reproducible product.

The Cosmetic Trades

All these imperial-sized chunks of land carved out by local dynasties were centres of cosmetic excellence, with fragile trading links. A strong dynasty was a definite commercial asset. Dotted about the landscape in strategic positions, massive palaces and temples towered over the rest of the population, and drove the luxury economy. Beauty was a powerful display of rank order and it was just as true in c.3000 bce as it was to the Roman author Herodotus later 'that the countries which lie on the circumference of the inhabited world produce the things which we believe to be most rare and beautiful'.5 If a thing was rare and beautiful, the kings, queens, and chieftains wanted it (which created a trade) and then so did everybody else (which created an industry). Palaces and temples not only created demand, but also refashioned raw materials in their own farms or workshops, turning themselves into middlemen and 'adding value' to local resources or cheap imports. At Pylos (c.1550-1200 bce)...

Cosmetic Receipts

They keep off death from themselves', as one Vedic author put it.12 A more comprehensive view of the connection between cosmetics and health care can be obtained from some of the very earliest medical texts. Many of these simply recorded a folkloric pharmacology of herbal, animal, and mineral 'receipts' (ingredients) for the treatment of various conditions, that continued to be recycled for centuries to come ancient Indian cosmetic receipts in particular were preserved uninterruptedly from 600 bce to ad 1600 and onwards to the present day. All these early receipt texts show an overwhelming medical interest in the care of the body surfaces. Egyptian cosmetic receipts appear in medical papyri next to skin salves, eye salves, and tooth remedies similarly in the early Anglo-Saxon leech books. In the Indian herbals, cosmetic receipts for hair dyes, hair promoters, hair oils, depilatories, and hair-disentangling cream jostle with recipes for the treatment of grey hair, dandruff, lice, and...

Public Women

We have reconstructed a bare outline of the ancient world's large cosmetics industry, some of its social ideologies, and most of its accoutrements all widely dispersed, and so close to the daily lives of so many people. But there is one other story which has been running subliminally throughout the position of women at the centre of all this activity.


5-FU exerts antitumor activity through the inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS) by FdUMP. TS is a critical enzyme required for the synthesis of thymidylate, a precursor required for DNA synthesis and repair (33). Genetic polymorphism in the gene encoding TS has also been shown to influence the response to 5-FU therapy and is one of the few examples of a germline polymorphism that is associated with the genetic makeup of the tumor. Levels of both TS mRNA and protein are inversely related to clinical antitumor response with clinical resistance linked to over expression of TS (34). In vivo, the expression of TS appears to be controlled by a polymorphism that is characterized by tandem repeats in the TS promoter enhancer region (TSER) of the gene. Higher levels of TS expression and enzyme activity are observed with increasing copies of tandem repeats resulting in a lower response rate to 5-FU (35). One study revealed that the increased number of tandem repeats in patients with...


The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are used as preservatives for liquid dosage forms of pharmaceuticals and in cosmetics and industrial products. They are active against bacteria, yeasts and molds. Parabens are effective in low concentrations (0.1-0.3 ) that are devoid of systemic effects, but as constituents of antibacterial ointments they can cause severe contact dermatitis.

Modern History

The traditionally known cinnamon was the peeled cinnamon bark that was rolled into the form of 'quills' in order to facilitate storage and transportation. Cinnamon oil was not a commodity of commerce in those days, although oil distillation was known and cinnamon oil was used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations. The first references to cinnamon oil are seen in the price ordinance in Berlin in 1574 and in Frankfurt in 1582 (Wijesekera et al., 1975). It is believed, however, that the cinnamon oil distillation in Sri Lanka would have probably commenced during the Dutch regime.

The Salerno Regimen

Salerno was originally a Roman coastal health resort and spa, situated 35 miles south-east of Naples down the coast from Baiae. In 847 Salerno became the port capital of a new Lombard principality, and the first Benedictine medical monks arrived. Over 300 years nine monasteries were established, and Salerno's three Roman aqueducts were rebuilt, serving a series of public fountains, the old public bathhouses, and private customers en route, some with their own private bathhouses including the nunnery of San Giorgio, and the bathhouse of the male monastery of Santa Sofia, a large establishment with furnaces and bronze cauldrons and a cold pool, open to all monks, nuns, and visiting clergy that might need them.14 Salerno became renowned for its healing facilities, and, being a port town, treated many damaged, health-seeking travellers, traders, and passing soldiers. By the twelfth century the medical School of Salerno had reached a peak of literary activity, finding and translating into...

The Trotula Corpus

It has long been thought that Trotula was a woman physician working in Salerno who wrote a famous book on cosmetics but recent detective work has proved that this was a myth perpetuated in the 1544 edition by a humanist doctor, Georg Kraut. Like so many medieval popular works, the corpus of work known as The Trotula was compiled by many different hands. During the twelfth century in Salerno two scholarly tracts, Treatise on the Diseases of Women and On the Conditions of Women, were bound together with a more practical and commercial compilation called Treatments for Women and what may have been a local Salernitan classic, a detailed tract called Cosmetics for Women. Just to clear up a confusion which has long existed, until 1544 the first two were called Trotula Major and the second two, Trotula Minor but both were pillaged and adapted in various ways, with a surge of editions in the fourteenth century, including pocket-sized vernacular translations into almost all European languages....

Select bibliography

The chapter notes give the full bibliography, and detailed recommendations for further reading. This is a small selection of basic texts, divided into broad themes for easy use methodology, primary sources, bio-physicality, body-art and cosmetics, purity and asceticism, hot and cold bathing, medical history, and material culture and domestic technology.


Esters of polysaccharides such as inulin have a diverse range of applications depending upon the chain length of the carbohydrate portion and the esterified component. Inulin esters (Figure 5.5) can be formed by reaction with acid chlorides or with anhydrides of certain carboxylic acids in which the introduced alkyl chain is typically from C12 to C22 (3) altering the compound's surface tension. The products produced can be varied by altering the length of the alkyl chain or degree of substitution, giving a diverse range of properties. Those with short chain lengths and low degrees of substitution decrease surface tension and may be used as nonionic surfactants, binders in paints, and softeners. With higher degrees of substitution they can be used as plasticizers (Bognolo, 1997). With longer alkyl chains, inulin esters are useful as textile sizing agents, film and fiber thickeners, and polymeric surfactants in detergents or emulsifiers in cosmetics (Ehrhardt et al., 1997 Rogge and...

Inulin Ethers

Inulin etherification products have utility in cosmetics or pharmaceuticals as carriers for water-insoluble substances or to stabilize aqueous solutions of compounds with low water solubility. They may also be used as emulsifiers or as an additive in textiles and paper and as softeners of thermoplastic polymers (Kunz and Begli, 1995).

In Vivo Studies

Nanoparticle use in cosmetics (especially sunscreen) is widespread, with the primary materials being nanoscale TiO2 and ZnO. The primary barrier to absorption through the skin is physical the outer layer of the epidermis, which contains mostly dead skin cells. There is less information about dermal toxicity nanoparticles than about other types, and specific skin conditions may affect greatly the penetration of nanoparticles however, the primary toxic mechanism appears to be generation of ROS. Whether the nanoparticles penetrate the epidermis depends on a number of factors. Movement of the skin or damaged skin can allow the penetration of microscale beads to the dermis and may allow movement to regional lymph nodes, where chemical reactions with proteins can affect the autoimmune system 96,97 . There is evidence that submicron particles penetrate the skin shallowly and may penetrate more deeply via hair follicles 98,99 . Smaller particles may penetrate far...

Natural Selection

Darwin noticed structural differences among members of sexually reproducing species. Except for identical (monozygotic) twins, individuals in a population vary in their physical features. Thus, birds like the thrush show variation in color of plumage, length of wings, and thickness of beak. Based on differences in their features, some individuals in a population are more successful than others at surviving and producing offspring. Differences in reproductive success occur when certain members of a species possess attributes that make them more likely to survive and reproduce in a given environment. Generally, individuals with features that meet the survival requirements of a habitat produce more offspring than others. As the number of descendants increases, the genetic traits of these individuals are more frequently represented in the population. This process of differential reproduction is called natural selection, and the change in the genetic makeup of the species is evolution.

Sex Steroids

Estrogens and androgens are reproductive hormones. They are steroid hormones, derived from cholesterol. Due to their lipid chemical makeup, these hormones are water insoluble. Therefore, these hormones are bound to a carrier molecule, such as sex hormone-binding globulin, which is protein in nature when in circulation.


The aging SVZ has not been studied as extensively or quantitatively as the aging hippocampus but undergoes a similar decline in proliferation. In mice, the number of BrdU-labeled cells present in the SVZ a few hours after labeling is lower by about a factor of 2 in 20- to 25-month-old vs. 2- to 4-month-old mice 61, 62 and in 24-month-old vs. 3-month-old Fisher-344 rats 63 . As in the hippocampus, the greatest reduction in cell genesis within the SVZ occurs between young adulthood and middle age, with a more modest additional decline with further aging 64 . The aging-related reduction in the appearance of newborn neurons in the OB is somewhat greater than the decline in proliferation within the SVZ at 1 month after labeling, only 30 as many BrdU-labeled cells are apparent in the OB of older animals 61 . Thus, it appears that the aging-related decrease in progenitor proliferation in the SVZ is compounded by an additional deficit in the division of neuroblasts as they migrate through the...

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