Online Data Entry Jobs
One way industry has tried to decrease the time between the investigator's evaluation of the patient and entry of that data into the database is by implementing remote data entry (RDE) systems. In an RDE system, data entry and capture capabilities are provided at each study site. Personnel at each site are trained to enter the data upon completion of the CRF or after each patient visit. In this way, the data, although not necessarily checked by the clinical monitor, are available to the sponsor in a more timely manner. After entry, the data can be sent to the sponsor by upload over a modem connection or by mailing removable storage devices (e.g., floppy disks, CDs). Therefore, data questions from the sponsor can be posed earlier in the process, when the site is still familiar with the patient. However, the data entry process can be shortened by one full step if, using those same data entry and data capture systems, the CRF data are entered directly into a digital format (electronic...
On the ENTREZ form, make a selection in the data entry window after the term Search, then enter search terms in the longer data entry window after for. The database will be searched for sequence database entries that contain all of these terms or related ones. Using boolean logic, the search looks for database entries that include the first term AND the second, and subsequent terms repeated until the last term. The Limits link on the ENTREZ form page is used to limit the GenBank field to be searched, and various logical combinations of search terms may be designed by this method. These fields refer to the GenBank fields described above in Figure 2.5. When searching for terms in a particular field, some knowledge of the terms that are in the database can be helpful. To assist in finding suitable terms, for each field, ENTREZ provides a list of index entries.
To execute the Perl example scripts, a system with Perl v5.6.0 or greater is required. Scripts can be entered manually into a text editor or word processing program and saved to disk, or downloaded directly from http www.wormbase.org data_mining in order to avoid data entry errors. If typing in the example scripts manually, do not include the listed line numbers. After the script has been entered or downloaded it needs to be made executable by entering the following commands at a command line prompt.
Resources will enable the continuation of BioCASE activities until the end of 2008, well beyond the formal conclusion of that project in January 2005. Among these are a help-desk function for data providers to assist in the installation and maintenance of database wrappers tools to improve databases structurally and with respect to data standardization and quality means to identify duplicate specimens on the network as a means to speed up data entry further development of the modular user interface standardization issues and techniques for data quality assessment and improvement
One intermediate step in improving the efficiency of paper-based systems is to use technology to handle paper more efficiently. For example, extracting data from case report forms (CRFs) by using optical character recognition (OCR) from scanned or faxed images of CRF pages has been employed for some time. This technology allows sponsors to route, archive, and disseminate electronic versions, rather than paper versions, of the study data. However, until the last few years, the limited accuracy of OCR systems had restricted the efficiency of this process. Today, using forms designed for OCR data entry and using state-of-the-art technology, it is possible to scan data into a database with a high degree of accuracy ( 99 ). However, although OCR continues to improve, as long as some error in transfer is possible, an operator will be required to oversee the product and to verify and correct questionable data. Additionally, some studies are more suitable for OCR data entry because their CRFs...
Click on Cancel to clear the data-entry panel and enter another data set. To collect these data, you stood by a public monument for 1 day and counted the number of people who were there. Your unit of time measurement was 2 hours, so that you have 12 data points, as follows 0, 0, 0, 2, 10, 15, 12, 16, 10, 4, 0, and 0.
Offline EDC systems with local data capture and transmission to the sponsor's database can have various configurations. Generally, all involve some hardware that allows data entry into a configuration defined by the study protocol (e.g., CRF page formats). The system may involve a sponsor-supplied database to be run on the site's personal computer (PC), or a turnkey system provided by the sponsor (i.e., hardware PC and database). Advantages of the turnkey configuration are that the site database (and PC) can be supplied in a validated state and data can be edited against protocol requirements as it is entered. Accepted data can be transmitted in batch mode to the sponsor via modem (telephone) upload, or sent on some type of removable medium (floppy disks, CDs, etc.). Although this configuration for managing data from multicenter trials was described more than 20 years ago, it is only with the recent drop in PC prices and the availability of reliable off-the-shelf software that such...
The database supports controlled vocabularies, with a thesaurus. All major entities have synonym tables. The most carefully curated terms are the entity Type terms, those defining relationships between loci, and the keywords used for reference annotation. The data entry forms permit selecting from the controlled vocabulary, and also entry of new terms if appropriate. In contrast to many of the controlled vocabularies, for example body parts, terms for entity types are kept to a minimum, and the use of broader and narrower terms avoided. Instead, there are tables for entity properties, where a locus of type Gene or Cytological Structure may share a common property, for example MNL Gene List.
So that only the monoisotopic peptide masses are included in the PMF data. The MS data analysis software will have an option for the data to be shown as a list of masses (peak list), which can be saved as a text file or simply copied directly into the data entry field of the database search engine. There are a number of search engines that can be used for PMF searches, some of which are freely available on the Internet (see Note 5). We will use Mascot to demonstrate a search, but all have essentially the same functions.
For 20 years, this information was held in very organized format by a single curator, Dr. Barbara Bachmann, but in the form of cross-referencing filecard catalogs, notebooks containing pedigree diagrams, genotype descriptions, gene and gene function tables and allele information, and also, informal notes and human memory. Because of its role in tracking genes and alleles, the stock center has also taken on the task of registering alleles and of publishing the linkage map for E. coli K-12 since 1976 (e.g., 1-4). Converting this information to electronic form was a task begun in 1989 as a two-phase development that was functional, in terms of software and essential data entry, in early 1990. A major imperative for this was the need to ensure the continuity of the stock center into the future, and the crucial need to modernize the records as part of this process had been recognized by program and division officers at the supporting agency, the National Science Foundation, for some time....
Because we were confronted with so much data entry from paper files, we initially emphasized triggers and tools that attempted to facilitate and ensure data integrity for entries and updates, and these have served us well in maintaining quality control and in the curation process. sources sequences (GenBank), bibliography abstracts (Medline), and more detailed enzyme information (Enzyme Commission database and SwissProt). This choice reflects the fact that the stock center has always operated with a small staff, usually director, two laboratory research assistants, some part-time help with data entry and editing, and with the advent of the database, a part-time systems administrator, and the database is only an ancillary part of the stock center's functions. The body of data, however, expands and needs modification at a rate that exceeds our modest plan. We need to adjust our curation model to accommodate this.
As an example of a complex type, consider the Publication type shown below, which has been taken from the ASN. 1 citation literature (1). Note the nesting of a set of keywords (strings) within the keywd record field of the Publication type, the nesting of author records within the authors record field, and the use of a variant or tagged union type within the journal field representing that publications are either controlled journal entries (also a variant type), or uncontrolled entries containing the name of the person who performed the data entry.
Exhibiting various new specifications . Remote access for correcting and adding data was enabled by database-generated HTML data entry and revision forms to be submitted to the server for data update via CGI . The HTML data forms were adopted separately for each family so that each family set of data contained only characters and character states meaningful in the specific context. In addition to HTML form views, natural language descriptions in HTML were provided for better human reading and to be used as templates in monographs and floras, such as the 'lichen flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert region' (Nash et al . 2002a, b) .
Data entry and revision are performed online via database-generated HTML data entry forms (Figure 8 3) Considerable flexibility is built into data entry options in that modifiers and notes can be readily added These data represent the source for database-generated natural language descriptions and online identification keys FIGURE 8.3 HTML form for data entry and revision. FIGURE 8.3 HTML form for data entry and revision.
It was ambitious in the range of data types included, but was constrained by the limited structuring, editing and retrieval capabilities of the single-file mainframe data management system used at the time (Exir Taxir) . It was small enough that one person could take charge of data entry and editing . The database was used to generate a number of printed reports .
Protein sequence information is often an endpoint for the geneticist, for example, an amino acid substitution may be defined by a SNP. But as a matter of fact, this is just one element of many that can tell us about the properties of a protein. Other meaningful information can tell us a great deal more about the nature of proteins, such as 3D structure, post-translational modifications, half-life, phenotypic role, enzymatic activity or quantity (abundance). These properties have also been proven to be tissue- and subcellular localization-specific. Beyond the properties of the protein itself, protein interactions are a rather novel data form that have been shown to be amenable to high-throughput analysis (which will be discussed shortly). These methods are powerful tools to define proteins and pathways in context on the cellular scale. Ultimately this is the objective of genetics and hence proteomics is a critical step in the progression from candidate gene to validated disease gene.
Subsequent to a reasonably thorough diagnostic assessment, interviewers should outline, based on the assessment data obtained, an individualized client treatment plan. As noted by Jongsma and Peterson (1995), assessment data form the foundation of treatment plans The foundation of any effective treatment plan is the data gathered in a thorough biopsychosocial assessment (p. 3). This fact is not likely to be disputed. Af
Prestudy activities include design and setup of the study, and poststudy activities include data entry, analysis, and report generation. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are determined early in the clinical development process, during the screening period. Before entry into the study, baseline determinations are made to which all subsequent changes will be compared. The heart of a trial is the treatment phase, which consists of drug safety modules and auxiliary modules (Fig. 8), many of which will repeat measurements made at the time of the initial screening or baseline. For Phase II and Phase III trials, specific parameters of efficacy will be assessed. The posttreatment period is the stage at which final measurements are made for safety it is also the time to assess the effect of withdrawal of drug relative to elimination of the disease state or a return toward the baseline state.
The Hercules is a random-access floor model system that uses disposable reaction cuvettes and concentrated liquid reagents that are automatically diluted prior to use. Instrumentation includes ion-selective electrodes for measurement of sodium, potassium, and chloride. The Hercules III can produce 400 results per hour (the test throughput). The test menu has 150 choices of analytes. Data entry can be with a keyboard and terminal or with a barcode and wand.
Improved options for data maintenance by remote access with database client. HTML-based Web interfaces for data entry and revision are suitable but not optimal, especially for data sets that include a large number of descriptors . Therefore, the client software Diversity Navigator (experimental version at http www. diversitynavigator. net Neubacher and Rambold 2005a onwards) is going to be adopted for optional direct database access . In addition to grid views for editing database contents, this platform-independent client (programmed in Java) also provides functions for querying data located in distributed database systems, as well as report functions for generating scripts for accessing SOAP RPC Web services, as shown in Figure 8 .7.
Only on thymic epithelium and not bone marrow-derived cells (Bensinger et al. 2001). Thus, these data form the current paradigm for TR development, which maintains that TR develop due to an interaction with self-antigen in the thymus at an avidity range between positive and negative selection (reviewed in Maloy and Powrie 2001).
There are a number ofreasons why points in the dispersion plot do not fall on the line y x. These can include measurement error in mapping, mistakes made in mapping or data entry, as in the outliers in figure 2, which reflect dramatic disagreements between two maps as to the position of a locus. More importantly, distances in one map may have a nonlinear relationship to distances in another. For example, genetic and physical distances typically have a non-linear relationship because recombination occurs more frequently near the middle of the chromosomal arms, causing a high ratio of genetic to physical distance in those regions, but a low ratio in the pericentromeric regions where recombination is inhibited. This nonlinear relationship between different types of map distances means that the regression line will be a more accurate transformation in some regions than in others.
Many databases used in drug discovery are ISIS Oracle-based using MDL structural software and a variety of data entry and analysis systems, some are PC Mac-based, and some are on a server. The ability to capture data and , then reassess its value through in silico approaches (148) has the potential to be a vast improvement over the individual memory systems that many drug companies used for the better part of the last century. Thus, with the retirement of a key scientist, the whole history of a project or even a department disappeared, and whatever folklore existed regarding unexplained findings with compounds 10 or 20 years before was lost with the individual.
In 1993, the project was initiated at the Botanische Staatssammlung, Munich, under the programmatic title 'information and data storage system for lichenized and lichenicolous ascomycetes' (LIAS) The basis of the data was a collection of descriptive data of lichen genera coded in the DELTA format . Two years later, a set of HTML pages with information on the LIAS project was put on the Internet The DELTA data collection grew due to continuous descriptive species and genus-level data entry. In 1996, a first set of LIAS key In 1997, an important technical step forward was achieved when genus data were transferred in the relational MS Access database DeltaAccess (now DiversityDescriptions), combining the advantages of DELTA and a relational database system (Hagedorn 2001a) . For generating HTML data entry forms for browser-based data input, specific report functions were implemented (Hagedorn and Rambold 2000) . Apart from the two Web interfaces DeltaAccess Perl Script (DAP) and...
LIAS light (http liaslight lias net) is embedded into the overall data structure of the core project and its data are stored in a corresponding way to the DiversityDescriptions database component (Figure 8 . 2 and Figure 8 . 6) . The restriction of this submodule to a set of 70 characters allows more rapid data entry so that the majority of ascomycete species can be covered within the next few years Data selection is optimized for the identification of lichenized groups NaviKey and DAP are used as Web interfaces for the descriptive data of the LIAS core module (see previous discussion) By linking the data with information stored in LIAS checklists, it will be easy to integrate dynamically functions for country-specific preselection of taxa in the online identification keys
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