Deep Brain Stimulation

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Author: Richard Welsh and Shannon Panzo
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Contents: Audios
Creator: Todd Lee
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Where Localizing Relevant Neural Circuitry

The emerging discipline of affective neuroscience aims at a mechanistic understanding of the physiological mechanisms that underlie affective experience. Two primary approaches have brought light to bear on this question. The first begins with studies of animal physiology and typically focuses on subcortical circuits (Panksepp, 1991) the second begins with studies of human physiology and typically focuses on cortical circuits (Davidson & Sutton, 1995). Although both have produced useful insights, we focus on the first (or comparative) approach, which primarily arose not only from the ancient observation of stock breeders that emotional traits are heritable (Bouchard, 1994), but also from brain stimulation research (Olds & Fobes, 1981).

Essential Commonalities Of Addictive Drugs

Millions of chemicals are listed in such standard compendia as Chemical Abstracts, yet only a few score of these have addictive liability. Those with addictive liability have neither chemical nor classical pharmacological commonalities. For example, the chemical structures of opiates (e.g. heroin) do not in the least resemble those of the psychostimulants (e.g. cocaine, amphetamines), and the classical pharmacological actions of opiates (e.g. analgesia, sedation) do not in the least resemble those of the psychostimulants (e.g. arousal, locomotor activation, anxiety). In fact, for decades it was not clear that any commonalities existed amongst drugs with addictive potential. However, in recent years it has become evident that the essential commonality is a drug-induced enhancement of CNS reward functions (for reviews, see Gardner, 1997, 2000 Gardner and David, 1999), which appears to have face validity in view of the fact that most human drug addicts report that their first drug use...

The core dopaminergicenkephalinergic reward system

The core reward system of the CNS consists of an in-series (Wise and Bozarth, 1984) set of neural circuits, interconnected with one another and running for a major portion of its length within the medial forebrain bundle (Gardner, 1997). Firststage reward neurons originate in the anterior bed nuclei of the medial forebrain bundle, a diffuse set of anterior ventral limbic forebrain nuclei. First-stage reward neurons run posteriorly within the medial forebrain bundle in a myelinated moderately fast-conducting pathway of unknown neurotransmitter type, and synapse on second-stage dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area of the ventral midbrain. Second-stage DA neurons run anteriorly within the medial fore-brain bundle, and synapse on third-stage enkephalinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens of the anterior limbic forebrain. Third-stage neurons run a comparatively short distance - carrying the reward signal one link farther - to the ventral pallidum. The second-stage DA...

Additional synaptic inputs to the core reward system

There are several additional neural inputs to the core reward system that may modulate drug reward by modulating DA function within the core system. GABAergic efferents from the nucleus accumbens form a feedback loop to the ventral tegmental area, and nucleus accumbens medium spiny GABAergic neurons also project to other GABAergic neurons synaptically linked to both the accumbens and ventral tegmental area (Alexander and Crutcher, 1990 Kalivas et al., 1993 Van Bockstaele and Pickel, 1995). Endogenous opioid peptidergic neurons also provide synaptic regulation of core mesoaccumbens DA function and of the accumbens-ventral pallidal projection (Alexander and Crutcher, 1990 Heimer and Alheid, 1991 Zahm and Brog, 1992 Kalivas et al., 1993 McGinty, 1999). Both the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens also receive serotonergic inputs, and manipulation of these serotonergic inputs appears to modulate reward functions. In fact, serotonergic lesions appear to make cocaine more...

Cannabinoid effects on electricallyinduced CNS reward

Self-delivered electrical stimulation of CNS reward circuits (through surgically implanted electrodes deep in the brain) provides a very direct in vivo assay of drug effects on reward substrates. More than a full decade ago, the author's research group showed that A9-THC enhances brain-stimulation reward in laboratory rats (Gardner et al., 1988a). These experiments were carried out using a two-lever auto-titration threshold-measuring quantitative electrophysiological brain-stimulation technique, in which experimental animals indicate their threshold for brain-stimulation reward in terms of microamperes of current delivered to the tip of the implanted electrode. Low doses of A9-THC (1.5 mg kg intraperitoneally) significantly enhanced brain-stimulation reward (lowered reward thresholds) in the medial forebrain bundle (Gardner et al., 1988a Gardner and Lowinson, 1991). More recently, we repeated these experiments using a different quantitative electrophysiological brain-stimulation...

Genetic variation in cannabinoid effects on CNS reward substrates

At the animal level, genetic influences contribute heavily to both drug preference and propensity for drug self-administration (George, 1987 Suzuki et al., 1988 George and Goldberg, 1989 Guitart et al., 1992 Kosten et al., 1994). In fact, some inbred animal strains generalize their increased vulnerability from one addictive drug class to others, supporting the concept that generalized poly-drug addiction has a genetic component (see, e.g. George and Meisch, 1984 Khodzhagel'diev, 1986 George, 1987) and suggesting, in turn, that some genetically inbred animal strains may have a generalized vulnerability to drug-induced reward. The Lewis strain rat is notable in this regard. Lewis rats appear to be inherently drug-seeking and drug-preferring as compared to rats of other strains. Lewis rats work harder for psychostimulant and opiate self-administration, place-condition more readily to opiates and cocaine, and voluntarily drink ethanol more readily - all in comparison to rats of other...

Cannabinoid Withdrawal Effects On Cns Reward Substrates

Whereas administration of addictive drugs produces enhancement of electrical brain-stimulation reward and mesoaccumbens DA, withdrawal from such drugs produces inhibition of electrical brain-stimulation reward and depletion of DA in CNS reward loci (see, e.g. Kokkinidis et al., 1980 Cassens et al., 1981 Schaefer and Michael, 1986 Frank et al., 1988 Kokkinidis and McCarter, 1990 Parsons et al., 1991 Robertson et al., 1991 Pothos et al., 1991 Rossetti et al., 1992 Schulteis et al., 1994 Spanagel et al., 1994 Wise and Munn, 1995). Based on such findings, elevations in brain-stimulation reward thresholds and DA depletion in CNS reward substrates have been proposed as the underlying neural basis for post-drug-use anhedonia and drug craving (Dackis and Gold, 1985 Koob et al., 1989 Markou and Koob, 1991). As noted by Wise and Munn (1995), dopamine depletion and attendant subsensitivity of the reward system offers a withdrawal symptom that may be more significant for drug self-administration...

Endogenous Opioid Mediation Of Cannabinoid Effects On Cns Reward Substrates

As noted above, acute enhancement of CNS reward substrates appears to be the single essential commonality of drugs with addictive potential. Strikingly, this drug-induced enhancement of CNS reward substrates is blocked or attenuated by such highly specific and selective opiate antagonists as naloxone and naltrexone. This holds not only for addictive drugs of the opiate class but also for non-opiates such as ethanol, amphetamines, cocaine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and phencyclidine (for review, see Gardner, 1997). Such findings - from dozens of laboratories over a span of more than 20 years - clearly implicate endogenous opioid mechanisms in mediating the rewarding actions of such drugs. To determine whether cannabinoid-induced enhancement of CNS reward substrates might be similarly blocked or attenuated by opiate antagonists, the author's research group carried out a series of experiments using both electrical brain-stimulation reward and in vivo brain microdi-alysis (Chen et...

Sites of cannabinoid action on CNS reward substrates

In those studies, we found that direct microinfusions of A9-THC into the nucleus accumbens dose-dependently enhanced accumbens DA levels. We also found that direct microinjections of A9-THC into the ventral tegmental area dose-dependently enhanced local somatodendritic DA release within the ventral tegmental area, but did not enhance nucleus accumbens DA levels (Chen et al., 1993). This suggests that locally-applied ventral tegmental area A9-THC does not alter local DA neuronal firing, and further suggests that the elevated nucleus accumbens DA levels and enhanced brain-stimulation reward produced by systemic cannabinoid administration result from local pharmacological action at or near the second-stage DA axon terminals in the nucleus accumbens. However, as noted above, systemic cannabinoid administration does enhance the neuronal firing of the second-stage DA reward neurons (French, 1997 French et al., 1997 Gessa et al., 1998). Furthermore, intracranial...

Cannabinoid effects on naturally rewarding behaviors

The literature dealing with cannabinoid effects on voluntary consumption of sweet foods and liquids is smaller. And, in the view of this reviewer, it is more germane to the considerations of the present review, in light of the following facts (1) animals genetically selected for high rates of electrical brain-stimulation reward (Lieblich et al., 1978 Gross-Isseroff et al., 1992) show significantly enhanced consummatory responses to sweet stimuli (Ganchrow et al., 1981) and (2) a number of other, non-cannabinoid, addictive drugs share the common feature of augmenting consumption and increasing the reward value of sweet stimuli (for review, see Milano et al., 1988). With respect to cannabinoids, a number of studies have found them to augment choice and consumption of sweet foods and solutions (e.g. sucrose) (Sofia and Knoblock, 1976 Brown et al., 1977 Milano et al., 1988) and to increase their reward value as assessed by increased progressive-ratio break-points (Gallate et al., 1999)....

The Miller Experiments

Effects of curare immobilization of skeletal muscles on conditioning of heart rate in the Miller and DiCara (1967) experiment. Half the rats received electrical brain stimulation for increasing heart rate and the other half, for decreasing heart rate. Miller and Banuazizi (1968) extended this finding. They inserted a pressure-sensitive balloon into the large intestine of rats, which allowed them to monitor intestinal contractions. At the same time, the researchers measured the animals' heart rate. As in the previous experiment, the rats were curarized and reinforced with electrical brain stimulation. Under different conditions, reinforcement was made contingent on increased or decreased intestinal contractions. Also, the rats were reinforced on some occasions for a decrease in heart rate and at other times for an increase. The researchers showed that reinforcing intestinal contractions or relaxation changed them in the appropriate direction. The animals also showed either an...

Medical And Surgical Treatments Of Pd

A number of surgical interventions are viable options to give further symptomatic relief and minimize any drug-induced complications. This is intended to protect or restore dopamin-ergic transmission by repairing dysfunctional basal ganglia circuits. Different neurosurgical approaches have been extensively discussed elsewhere by other investigators (57,58). Basically there are three general types. The traditional method is to make an ablative lesion to disrupt part of the circuit. However, this method is irreversible postoperatively. The second method is deep brain stimulation (DBS) where an electrode is implanted in the central part of the brain to electronically modulate the circuit. This method has received more attention because it is reversible and adjustable postoperatively (59). Ablative lesion and DBS have been performed at different parts of the thalamus, pallidum, and subthalamus to compensate for the biochemical effect of DA deficiency. The third method is brain restorative...

Experimental Evidence and the Quantitative Law of Effect

The quantitative law of effect has been extended to magnitude of food reinforcement, brain stimulation, quality of reinforcement, delay of positive reinforcement, rate of negative reinforcement, magnitude or intensity of negative reinforcement, and delay of negative reinforcement (see de Villiers, 1977, for a thorough review). In a summary of the evidence, Peter de Villiers (1977) stated

Teaching Philosophy

We have important central beliefs about the activity of clinical interviewing. First, we consider clinical interviewing to be both art and science. This means you need to exercise your brain through study and critical thinking. Further, you need to develop and expand personal attributes required for effective clinical interviewing. We encourage academic challenges for your intellect and fine-tuning of the most important instrument you have to exercise this art yourself. Second, with reference to the Cannon quote, we believe, from the client's perspective, the clinical interview should always be on the building-up or reparative side in the ledger of life's experiences. Reasons for interviews vary. Experience levels vary. But as Hippocrates implied to healers many centuries ago As far as it is in your power, never allow the clinical interview experience to harm your client.

Qp35625b728 2007

Our goal in creating the Frontiers in Neuroscience series is to present the insights of experts on emerging fields and theoretical concepts that are, or will be, at the vanguard of neuroscience. Books in the series cover topics ranging from genetics, ion channels, apoptosis, electrodes, neural ensemble recordings in behaving animals, and even robotics. The series also covers new and exciting multidisciplinary areas of brain research, such as computational neuroscience and neuro-engineering, and describes breakthroughs in classical fields such as behavioral neuroscience. We want these books to be the books every neuroscientist will use to get acquainted with new ideas and frontiers in brain research. These books can be given to graduate students and postdoctoral fellows when they are looking for guidance to start a new line of research. Each book is edited by an expert and consists of chapters written by the leaders in a particular field. Books are richly illustrated and contain...

Looking Forward

L., Flemming, S., & Kornetsky, C. (2000). Effects of cocaine context on NAcc dopamine and behavioral activity after repeated intravenous cocaine administration. Brain Research, 862, 49-58. Everitt, B. J., Dickinson, A., & Robbins, T. W. (2001). The neuropsychological basis of addictive behaviour. Brain Research Reviews, 36, 129-138. Jodogne, C., Marinelli, C. M., Le Moal, M., & Piazza, P. V. (1994). Animals predisposed to develop amphetamine self-administration show higher susceptibility to develop contextual conditioning of both amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion and sensitization. Brain Research, 657, 236-244. LaBuda, C. J., Sora, I., Uhl, G. R., & Fuchs, P. N. (2000). Stress-induced analgesia in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice reveals normal function of the delta-opioid receptor system. Brain Research, 869, 1-10. Oades, R., & Halliday, G. (1987). Ventral tegmental (A10) system Neurobiology. 1. Anatomy and connectivity. Brain Research Reviews, 12, 117-165. van...


The cerebellum controls balance, muscle movement, and coordination (cerebellum means little brain in Latin). Since this brain region ensures that muscles contract and relax smoothly, damage to the cerebellum can result in rigidity and in severe cases, jerky motions. The cerebellum looks like a smaller version of the cerebrum (see Figure 13.6). It is tucked beneath the cerebral hemispheres and also has two hemispheres connected to each other by a thick band of nerves. Additional nerves connect the cerebellum to the rest of your brain (Figure 13.8).

Neuron Function

Neurons transmit impulses from one part of the body to another. Many kinds of stimuli, including touch, sound, light, taste, temperature, and smell, cause neurons to fire in response. When you touch something, signals from touch sensors travel along sensory nerves from your skin, through your spinal cord, and into your brain. Your brain then sends out messages through your spinal cord to the motor nerves, telling your muscles how to respond. To evoke this response, nerve cells must transmit signals along their length and from one cell to the next.

The Nervous System

Sensory Receptor Types

Every second, millions of signals make their way to your brain and inform it about what your body is doing and feeling. Your nervous system interprets these messages and decides how to respond. Responding to stimuli requires the actions of specialized cells called neurons. Neurons are capable of carrying electrical and chemical messages back and forth between your brain and other parts of the body. These electrochemical message-carrying cells are often bundled together, producing structures called nerves. Neurons and nerves are extensively networked throughout your body. They are found in your brain, spinal cord, and sense organs such as your eyes and ears. Nerves connect various organs to each other and link the nervous system with other organ systems (Figure 13.1). As sensory information is passed to and from your brain, it travels through the main nerve pathway the spinal cord. Your spine, which protects your spinal cord from injury, is made up of 33 separate bones called...

Epilepsy Surgery

Amygdala Tumor

Novel techniques such as multiple subpial transections, vagal nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation, direct cortical stimulation, chronic drug infusion, and gene therapy are currently being investigated as further palliative therapy for patients who are not suitable for resective surgery of their epileptic focus.

Brain Blaster

Brain Blaster

Have you ever been envious of people who seem to have no end of clever ideas, who are able to think quickly in any situation, or who seem to have flawless memories? Could it be that they're just born smarter or quicker than the rest of us? Or are there some secrets that they might know that we don't?

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