Alternative Treatment for Depression

Destroy Depression

Destroy Depression is written by James Gordon, a former sufferer of depression from the United Kingdom who was unhappy with the treatment he was being given by medical personnell to fight his illness. Apparently, he stopped All of his medication one day and began to search for answers on how to cure himself of depression in a 100% natural way. He spent every waking hour researching all he could on the subject, making notes and changing things along the way until he had totally cured his depression. Three years later, he put all of his findings into an eBook and the Destroy Depression System was born. The Destroy Depression System is a comprehensive system that will guide you to overcome your depression and to prevent it from injuring you mentally and physically. Read more here...

Destroy Depression Summary

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Other Indications For Antidepressants

Antidepressants may benefit most forms of anxiety disorder, including panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia (see p. 393). SSRIs are effective in milder cases of the eating disorder bulimia nervosa, particularly fluoxetine (in higher doses than are required for depression). This effect is independent of that on depression (which may co-exist) and may therefore involve action on transmitter systems other than those involved in modulating depression. Antidepressants appear to be ineffective in anorexia nervosa.

Genetic Epidemiology of Major Depression

Evidence for the genetic contribution to major depression is compelling and comes from a variety of study designs, many of which rely on large population-based twin registries (Bierut et al., 1999 Kendler, Gardner, & Prescott, 1998 Kendler, Heath, Martin, & Eaves, 1986, 1987 Kendler, Karkowski, Corey, & Neale, 1998 Kendler, Neale, Kessler, Heath, & Eaves, In the same way that lifetime prevalence estimates change as a function of varying definition, the estimates of environmental and genetic variance underpinning variation in major depression also vary. Table 11.2 also includes standardized genetic and environmental variance components under the best-fitting models for twin pair resemblance, as a function of the particular diagnostic systems. For all nine definitions, there was no evidence to support the contribution of shared environmental or cultural effects in the etiology of major depression. Instead, family aggregation (i.e., the degree to which siblings and genetically related...

Antidepressants In Bipolar Depression

TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF bipolar depression is a major problem in the long-term treatment of bipolar illness. While about one-third of patients may experience adequate prophylaxis with lithium or val-proate (El-Mallakh 1994), the majority of patients continue to be symptomatic (Ghaemi 2002). For example, although gender distribution of the bipolar diagnosis is equal, women may experience depression at two or three times the rate in men (Goodwin and Jamison 1990). Additionally, depressive symptoms themselves may be more problematic both type I and type II bipolar disorder patients spend one-third to half of their lives, respectively, experiencing depressive symptoms (Judd et al. 2002, 2003). This depressive morbidity is at least three times as common as manic or hypomanic morbidity (Ghaemi et al. 2000 Post et al. 2003a). Early onset of depression appears to be an especially poor prognostic factor. Among 72 children who have experienced a prepubertal, major depressive episode...

Changing And Stopping Antidepressants

Premature dose reduction or withdrawal is associated with increased risk of relapse. In cases where three or more depressive episodes have occurred, evidence suggests that long-term continuation of an antidepressant offers protection, as further relapse is almost inevitable in the next three years. When ceasing use of an antidepressant, the dose should be reduced over at least 6 weeks to avoid a discontinuation syndrome (symptoms include anxiety, agitation, nausea and mood swings). Discontinuation of SSRIs and venlafaxine are associated additionally with dizziness, electric shocklike sensations and paraesthesia. Short-acting drugs that do not produce active metabolites are most likely to cause such problems. Paroxetine in particular is associated with severe withdrawal symptoms including bad dreams, paraesthesia and dizziness (which can be misdiagnosed as labyrinthitis).

Antipsychotics As Antidepressants

The introduction of the second generation of antipsychotics, with relatively less D2 blockade and significant serotonin 5-HT2A receptor blockade, suggested that these agents may be effective in bipolar illness without a significant depressogenic effect. This was insinuated in several short-term, placebo-controlled studies of second-generation anti-psychotics in acute mania (Keck et al. 2003a, 2003b Sachs et al. 2002 Tohen et al. 1999, 2000). In all of these studies, depressive scales were measured. All showed reductions in depressive symptoms in manic or mixed bipolar patients. However, depressive symptoms in mania are not depression, and the issue of whether these agents are antidepressive would have to be investigated in randomized trials of depressed bipolar subjects.

Symptoms Of Major Depression

Each letter stands for a criterion (except for depressed mood) used in diagnosing a major depressive episode. Five or more of the following criteria are needed for at least 2 weeks S sleep changes I (decreased) interest G (excessive) guilt E (decreased) energy C (decreased) concentration A appetite changes P psychomotor agitation or retardation S suicidal ideation APPROACH TO DEPRESSIVE DISORDER Definitions Dysthvniia Fewer, milder, but persistent depressive symptoms with low mood for more than 2 years. Major depression Depressed mood or loss of interest in activities for 2 weeks plus three or four of the other symptoms for a total of five (Table 59-1). Depression is highly prevalent in medical outpatients, thought to be second only to hypertension in general practice. It is estimated that 15 of the general population will experience a major depressive episode at some point in their life. Between 6 and 8 of outpatients in a primary care setting are estimated to...

Antidepressants

There are many side effects associated with the use of the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (e.g., amitriptyline), that are relevant to the ability to drive, such as blurred vision, slow visual accommodation, disorientation, and eye-hand coordination the most important are the induction of drowsiness,

Diagnosis Of Bipolar Depression

Generally speaking, determining that a patient currently meets criteria for a major depressive episode is straightforward. What is not straightforward, and therefore demands attention, is determining whether the patient's history is consistent with unipolar or bipolar depression. We suggest here a hierarchical model for such a diagnostic assessment, based on the validators of diagnosis used in psychiatric nosology.

Depression and Single Parents

One study that did not clearly fall into the above categories investigated the question of family transmission of depression from mother to child. A sample of 115 white, middle-class mothers (mean age 39.6 years) and their children (mean age 13.1 years) was compared with an African-American, predominantly single-mothers group (mean age 32.9 years) and their children (mean age 8.6 years) for maternal depression and depression in their children (Jones et al., 2000). A critical finding was that maternal depression was predictive of child depressive symptoms. No direct evidence was found for a higher rate of depression in single mothers and their children. The quality of the mother-child relationship was also found to have a nonsignificant effect. The strongest support emerged for transmission of depressive symptoms from mother to child. Eamon and Zuehl (2001) also found that maternal depression in single mothers influenced their children's emotional problems directly and indirectly...

Molecular Modification

Yet another close chemical variation in a therapeutic area where multiple agents already exist. Unenlightened opportunism is often referred to as the me-too approach. An example of this approach can be seen in the development of the tricyclic antidepressants, illustrated in Fig. 3.

Physicochemical Basis of Pain Intervention

Pain management can be approached by intervening at various points of the nociceptive pathway. Transduction is the conversion of the peripheral stimulus at the nociceptor into an electrical signal (35). Agents that have been shown to work at the periphery include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and capsaicin. Transmission is the afferent ascendance of the electrical signal from the periphery to the neuraxis. Local anesthetics temporarily block transmission. Modulation (i.e., inhibition or facilitation) occurs at the level of the interneurons and supraspinal pathways (36). Opioids, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and GABA agonists are some of the agents effective in manipulating suppression of perceived pain (37).

The Social Context of Science

Depression is a disorder that affects nearly 19 million Americans, and billions of dollars have been spent on research. Much of this funding has helped researchers understand changes in brain chemistry and to design effective drug therapies to treat depression. However, we know that major risk factors for depression in the United States include gender (depression is twice as common among women as among men), societal status (risk of depression is greater among ethnic minorities), and geographic location (city dwellers are more likely to become depressed than rural residents). These risk factors suggest that, in addition to biology, environmental conditions probably play some role in the origin of depression. Despite these observations, until recently there has been relatively little research on techniques of preventing depression, even among these high-risk groups. A review of the medical literature reveals six times as many research papers on using...

Treatment Nonresponse

Further detail regarding treatment response will be found in Chapter 7, Antidepressants in Bipolar Depression. In that chapter, evidence is provided to support the associations listed in Table 1-3. Here, we need An interesting clinical question is whether there are variations to antidepressant-induced mania that may not meet classic mania definitions. For instance, antidepressants could induce subthreshold, hypomanic states, often characterized primarily by irritability (Goldberg and Truman 2003), which could then become chronic (El-Mallakh and Karippot 2005). Antidepressants could also potentially lead to subsyn-dromal depressive or manic states (what has been termed roughening Sachs 1996). Manic symptoms induced by antidepressants are often mixed states. Since mixed states are associated with suicidality, the possibility exists that many cases of antidepressant-induced suicidality in children and adults (Khan et al. 2000 Murray et al. 2005 van Praag 2002) may represent the induction...

Interactions At Site Of Absorption

Gut motility may be altered by drugs. Slowing of gastric emptying, e.g. opioid analgesics, tricyclic antidepressants (antimuscarinic effect), may delay and reduce the absorption of other drugs. Purgatives reduce the time spent in the small intestine and give less opportunity for the absorption of poorly soluble substances such as adrenal steroids and digoxin.

Depressive Phenomenology

Atypical depressive symptoms seem to be more common in bipolar than in unipolar depression (Agosti and Stewart, 2001 Benazzi 1999, 2001a Ghaemi et al. 2002 Mitchell et al. 2001). In the National Institutes of Mental Health Collaborative Depression Study, a 20-year, prospective cohort study of depressed patients, atypical depressive features were a predictor of bipolar disorder, as opposed to unipolar depression (Akiskal et al. 1995). DSM-IV-TR criteria for atypical features include increased sleep, increased appetite, rejection sensitivity, leaden paralysis, and mood reactivity. The DSM-IV-TR definition of atypical depression is stricter than some clinical definitions, which focus mainly on the sleep and appetite features. An interesting clinical observation is that most bipolar patients have only one of the reversed neurovegetative symptoms that is, many patients experience increased sleep but decreased appetite, or vice versa. If one defines typical depression as decreased sleep and...

Parental Chronic Pain and Its Impact on the Children

There is another dimension of chronic pain that may have some implication for children. Because of the high prevalence of the depression and depressive symptoms in the chronic pain population, it is likely that parental depression, in addition to chronic pain, may have added risk for the children. In a review of the literature on the effects of parental depression on children, I showed that children of depressed parents were vulnerable to childhood and later depression as well as wide-ranging psychopathology and behavioral and social disturbances (Roy, 2001). The reasons for this level of vulnerability were not always adequately explained. Some of these issues are further explored in Chapter 8. It is probable that major mood disorders have a genetic basis, thus making the offspring susceptible. Beyond that, parental depression may create problems in child rearing. Parental bonding with young children may be loosened the well parent's attention may also be focused on the patient,...

Case Illustration Mrs Gardner

This stable family situation was put under great strain when Mrs. Gardner developed clinical depression. She received immediate psychiatric assessment, and the diagnosis of unipolar depression was confirmed. Her mood disorder lasted 4 years, during which time the family system was put under enormous strain. One of Mrs. Gardner's symptoms was prolonged isolation in her bedroom for days or even weeks. During these times she cried a lot and starved herself. She lost her job, and the family situation in general and Ann's behavior in particular took a sharp turn for the worse. Several points are worth noting. First, Mrs. Gardner's headaches by themselves had virtually no negative impact on the well-being of the family. Clinical depression, on the other hand, produced very damaging results. Second, the well adult in the system, namely the husband and father, was almost entirely ineffectual in filling any of the gaps created in the family system by the illness of his partner. In fact, he...

A FDA Divisions that Receive INDs for Drugs

Initial INDs for investigational drugs are sent by the sponsor to the appropriate reviewing division of the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). Each of the 15 reviewing divisions is responsible for sustaining medical scientific expertise and regulatory responsibility for drugs within a specific therapeutic area. For example, The Division of Neuropharmacological Drug Products reviews drug products that exert their effects through actions on the central or peripheral nervous systems, such as anxiolytics, antidepressants, and anticonvulsant drugs. The Division of Antiviral Drug Products reviews, for example, antiretroviral drugs, as well as drugs active against the herpes simplex virus. These 15 reviewing divisions are organized into five Offices of Drug Evaluation (ODE), each of which reports to the Office of Review Management within the CDER. The organizational structure of the CDER, as well as the names of the current Directors of each ODE, can be readily viewed on...

Standardized Introductions

In some ways, it's best to use a standardized introduction procedure with all clients, because the more consistent you are, the more certain you can be that individual differences in how clients present themselves reflect actual differences in personality styles. If you vary your introduction routine based on your mood or other factors, client reactions may vary, based on differences in your approach to them. In other words, differences in their reactions to you may represent something about you, rather than something about them. Standardization is a part of good psychological science. If you have a standard approach, you increase the reliability, and possibly the validity, of your observations.

Depression Following Myocardial Infarction Prevalence Clinical Consequences and Patient Management

Depressive symptoms and major depression have been consistently reported as common psychological reactions to myocardial infarction (MI). It has also been argued, on the basis of prospective observational evidence, that depression following MI constitutes an independent, that is, causal, risk for subsequent mortality and morbidity. Two recent meta-analyses have examined this evidence. Unadjusted pooled analyses of both meta-analyses indicate that depression following MI is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of death and recurrent cardiac events. However, with adjustment for potential confounders the associations between depression and these outcomes were attenuated. In addition, two recent randomized trials addressing depression in MI patients (SADHART and ENRICHD) observed a relative reduction in depression with treatment, but found no effects of treatment on mortality, nonfatal rein-

Mechanisms of Psychosocial Impact

The mechanisms by which psychosocial factors increase the risk of cardiovascular disease are complex. In experimental studies, worsened coronary atherosclerosis41 and endothelial dysfunc-tion42 occur in response to social disruption. Decreased heart rate variability, a marker of auto-nomic imbalance, has been related to shift work exposure.43 Several studies have demonstrated links between psychosocial variables and vascular function,44-45 inflammation,46 increased blood clotting and decreased fibrinolysis.47,48 In women without known coronary disease, recurrent major depression was associated with subclinical ather-osclerosis.49 The exact pathophysiological nature of the influence of psychosocial factors remains to be determined, as does the temporal sequence of events.

Management of Psychosocial Risk Factors

In the ENRICHD trial,52 2481 post-MI patients with major or minor depression and or low perceived social support were randomly assigned either to usual medical therapy or to an intervention consisting of up to 6 months of cognitive behavior therapy at a median of 17 days after the index MI, with sertraline added for patients with persistent depressive symptoms. The intervention improved depression and social isolation but not event-free survival. The failure to demonstrate any survival benefit was thought, in part, to have been due to the fact that a large proportion of patients with mild, transient, depression were involved. An ensuing subgroup analysis of those patients enrolled in the ENRICHD with the most severe symptomatology, however, also failed to demonstrate any survival benefit.53 In addition, it was shown that intervention patients whose depression did not improve were at substantial risk for late mortality.

Prolongation Of Action By Vasoconstrictors

Disease, and with co-administered tricyclic antidepressants and potassium-losing diuretics. An alternative vasoconstrictor is felypressin (synthetic vasopressin), which, in the concentrations used, does not affect the heart rate or blood pressure and may be preferable in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Observational Studies

Major depression predicted CM in both bivariate (HR,5.74 95 CI Both major depression (OR, 2.67 95 CI, 1.22-5.85) and depressive symptoms (OR, 3.32 95 CI, 1.69-6.53) were predictive of cardiac events in bivariate analyses only. After adjustment, depression did not predict cardiac events Depressive symptoms predicted CM in bivariate (OR, 7.82 95 CI, 2.42-25.26) and multivariate (OR,6.64 95 CI, 1.76-25.09) analyses. However, major depression only predicted CM in bivariate analyses (OR, Depressive symptoms predicted CM in both bivariate (OR,3.23 95 CI, 1.65-6.33) and multivariate (OR, 3.66 95 CI, 1.68-7.99) analyses Depression predicted cardiac events in those receiving placebo medication after controlling for previous Ml and congestive heart failure (OR 2.45 95 1.14 5.35. However, after additional adjustment for dyspnea, depression did not predict cardiac events (RR, 1.73 95 CI, 0.75-3.98). Major depression only predicted ACM at the 12 month follow-up in Depression predicted ACM and CM...

Summary of the Evidence Concerning Depression and Prognosis

ACM all-cause mortality CI confidence interval CVM cardiovascular mortality ECG electrocardiogram EN RICH D Enhancing Recovery In Coronary Heart Disease HR hazard ratio LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction Ml myocardial infarction MIND-IT Myocardial INfarction and Depression Intervention Trial PVC premature ventricular complexes SADHART Sertraline Antidepressant Heart Attack Randomised Trial * given if mirtazapine was refused or not tolerated ** 249 patients received adjunctive antidepressant medication t SADHART was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of sertraline use in unstable cardiac

Implications for Patient Management

The research on depression following MI has clear implications for patient management. As soon as MI patients are medically stable, as determined by a cardiologist, they should undergo routine screening to identify those that are severely distressed. There are many self-report questionnaires available53 to assess depression, with the Beck Depression Inventory,54 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale55 being among those most commonly employed. Symptoms of depression should be assessed using a self-report instrument during hospitalization (3 to 7 days post-MI), and 6 weeks or so after discharge (usually when formal cardiac rehabilitation classes begin), to identify those patients who are experiencing significant emotional distress. Appropriate referral to a mental health professional should be considered for those patients demonstrating persistent elevated symptoms of depression, to allow for assessment of clinical depression and appropriate treatment. For those patients who are...

Guide To Further Reading

Anderson IM, Nutt D J et al 2000 Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants a revision of the 1993 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. Journal of Psychopharmacology 14 3-20 Ballenger J C et al 1998 Consensus statement on panic disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 59 47-54 Ballenger J C et al 1998 Consensus statement on social anxiety disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 59 54-60 Ballenger J C et al 2000 Consensus statement on posttraumatic stress disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 61 60-66 Ballenger J C et al 2001 Consensus statement on generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 62 53-58 Davies S J C et al 1999 Association of panic disorder and panic attacks with hypertension. American Journal of Medicine...

The social stigma of psychiatric disorder

Endogenously depressed patients are lonely, hopeless and helpless, while the ME patient will only admit to being discouraged. The depressed patient has no future and is anhedonistic but the patient with ME will beg for treatment because this disease is slowing them down, interfering with plans and life. While depressives are phlegmatic and withdrawn, the ME attitude is positive and hopeful.

Very Different Story

The case of the Dales is one of remarkable adaptation in the face of very serious pain and disability. Mrs. Dale, a women in her forties, married with a teenage stepdaughter, was a highly accomplished woman with a degree in music who was injured in a work accident. She had severe leg and knee pain following the accident. She received physiotherapy without any apparent benefit. In fact, her pain condition continued to deteriorate, and she was eventually diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome. She had serious problems with medications, reacting badly to many narcotic analgesics. During this time she became suicidal and was immediately placed on antidepressants, with beneficial effects. Over a relatively short period of time, she became wheelchair bound and lost some control over her bladder and bowel functions. In short, in a matter of months she became an invalid.

Traditional Views Of The Cp

Folate levels are two to three times higher in CSF than in plasma, and transthyretin (TTR) represents 25 of all CSF proteins (18,19). Interestingly, TTR is produced exclusively by the CP. Notably, a link has been described between TTR and depression. Studies in both TTR-null mice and depressed patients suggest a relationship between lowered TTR and increased exploratory behavior and increased Hamilton depression scores.

Studies of Neurotransmitter Function

Neurotransmitter function in bipolar and nonbipolar depressions has been investigated using transmitter metabolite levels in body fluids, receptors on peripheral cells, and receptor function using agonist or neuroendocrine challenge techniques. The studies were guided by a series of simple and heuristically useful hypotheses, summarized in Table 2-1. Despite supporting data for each hypothesis, each also had contradictory findings. At a fairly early stage, it was possible to reject hypotheses that major depression, bipolar or otherwise, stemmed from too much or too little of any transmitter (Maas et al. 1991). The second generation of hypotheses held that balances between transmitters, such as norepi-nephrine versus serotonin (Prange et al. 1974) or norepinephrine (NE) versus acetylcholine (Janowsky et al. 1972), were abnormal. The third generation of hypotheses, logically very close to the first generation, held that second messenger function associated with transmitter receptors was...

Mr Friesen A Case of Doing Ones Best

Friesen, a retired senior civil servant, presented with a multitude of pain complaints, the worst of them being his persistent pain from herpes zoster. He also had a long history of emphysema and periodic episodes of clinical depression. The marriage had a checkered history. The couple attributed their marital problems mainly to his long-standing health issues. Previously they had a daughter living with them who suffered from Down syndrome and was entirely dependent on them. The history revealed that the marriage ran into problems soon after their disabled daughter was born. Mrs. Friesen received very little practical or emotional support from her husband in raising the child, who subsequently died in her late teens.

Central nervous system

Adverse effects include sedation and dry mouth. Tricyclic antidepressants antagonise the antihypertensive action and increase the rebound hypertension of abrupt withdrawal. Low dose clonidine (Dixarit, 50-100 microgram d) also has a minor role in migraine prophylaxis, menopausal flushing and choreas.

Adrenergic Neuron Blocking Drugs

Adrenergic neuron blocking drugs are selectively taken up into adrenergic nerve endings by the active, energy-requiring, saturable amine (noradrenaline) pump mechanism (uptake-1). They accumulate in the noradrenaline storage vesicles from which they are released in response to nerve impulses, diminishing the release of noradrenaline and so all sympathetic function. They do not adequately control supine blood pressure and are prone to interactions with other drugs affecting adrenergic function, e.g. tricyclic antidepressants and topical nasal decongestants. They are virtually obsolete in hypertension.

N M OBrien and T P OConnor

Histamine toxicity can result in a wide variety of symptoms such as rash, urticaria, inflammation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramping, hypotension, tingling sensations, flushing, palpitations and headache. In general, toxic symptoms are relatively mild and many patients may not attend a doctor. Thus, the exact prevalence worldwide of histamine toxicity is unclear. The prevalence of cheese-related toxicity is also unclear although several incidences have been reported in the literature. For most individuals, ingestion of even large concentrations of biogenic amines, such as histamine, does not elicit toxicity symptoms since they are rapidly converted to aldehydes by monoamine oxidase (MAO) and diamine oxidase (DAO) and then to carboxylic acids by oxidative deamination. These enzymes, present in the gastrointestinal tract, may prevent reduce the absorption of unmetabolised histamine into the bloodstream. However, if MAO and DAO are impaired due to a genetic defect or the...

Affected Children The Gardner Family

Gardner's case was discussed in Chapter 3. To recap the essentials, this woman in her forties with a very long history of headaches also developed clinical depression. She was very slow to react to antidepressants. In the meantime, her entire family, consisting of husband and two children, John, aged 17, and Ann, aged 12, came apart at the seams. Ann became a great source of concern to both parents. John was old enough to fend for himself and there was no evidence that he had any particular difficulties. He maintained his closeness with his mother and tried to be as helpful as he could around the house. Even in the depth of her depression, Mrs. Gardner continued to show appreciation for John's fortitude and loyalty.

Using a Comprehensive Checklist for a Thorough Suicide Assessment

Lack of interest or pleasure in usually pleasurable activities Alcohol abuse increase during depressive episodes Diminished concentration Global insomnia To receive a diagnosis of major depression or dysthymic disorder, specific criteria must be met. For the purposes of our discussion here, we focus less on the specific diagnostic criteria and more on the general symptoms usually indicative of depression. Overall, the DSM includes three major categories of depressive symptoms, plus one associated depressive symptom pertinent to our discussion Because depression is classified in DSM-IV-TR as a mood disorder, it makes perfect sense to begin a depression assessment by using mood questions derived from the mental status examination. For example, questions such as How have you been feeling lately or Would you describe your mood for me constitute a good beginning. Listen for the client's quality of mood. Then, use a paraphrase to make sure you have heard According to the DSM, major...

Pubertal Status Effects

Since hormonal changes are the cause of the changes in physical growth and development, it is often difficult to disentangle hormonal and status effects on adjustment. For example, as described in the previous section, a study by Angold and colleagues (1998) found that only after reaching Tanner stage III were girls more likely than boys to experience higher rates of depressive disorder. However, subsequent analyses showed that effects of elevated estradiol and testosterone levels eliminated effects due to secondary sexual characteristics (Angold et al., 1999). This study suggests that when pubertal status effects on adjustment are found, they are likely be driven by hormonal changes.

Suicide Quiz Answers and Explanations

When a suicidal patient begins to improve, that's usually a sign that the danger is over. Sometimes, especially in depressed patients, improvement constitutes the time for greatest concern. Depressed patients may make the decision to commit suicide and consequently appear improved. Other depressed patients may use their increasing levels of physical energy to commit suicide. A great deal of regional variation in suicide can be accounted for by weather variables such as temperature and precipitation. Many people think that suicide rates in rainy and cloudy areas must be much higher, but there is no conclusive evidence for this belief. In fact, sunny and dry Nevada has the highest per-capita suicide rate in the United States. Reports are also mixed on whether the moon is associated with suicidal behavior. Even when it appears that weather or lunar variables are associated with suicide, usually other variables are found to account for this apparent link.

The influence of distress on symptoms

This is not to say the symptoms are 'hypochondriacal' or 'all in the head', but psychological distress can cause more physiological activity because individuals are worked-up, upset or worried. Distress can also change the way we look at things so we make more negative interpretations of symptoms that may arise. We have shown that both CFS and depressed patients tend to interpret the meaning of symptoms in a more negative way than do healthy controls (Moss-Morris and Petrie 1997). Mood swings and tendencies to overreactions occur. Hidden parts of the personality show and negative feelings arise as the illness progresses.

Symptom Assessment Close to the Patients Endof Life Multidimensional Issues

Querading (i.e. loss of appetite or fatigue stands for depressive symptoms or dyspnoea) 9 of symptoms. Since these and other symptom-specific phenomena complicate assessment of the patient's symptoms, attempts have been undertaken to identify risk factors for increased or altered symptom expression that result in refractory symptoms. For pain, the main risk factors include incident pain, neuropathic pain, psychosocial suffering, substance abuse, and impaired cognition 10 . A staging system for pain is currently in the multi-centre evaluation phase 11 .

Drug Interactions With Cannabinoids

Most clinical trials have administered cannabinoids alone to treat a particular disorder rather than in combination with other drugs. There appear have been no adverse interactions of any consequence between a wide range of cancer chemotherapies, when cannabinoids have been given to counteract the nausea and vomiting associated with the latter or indeed during specific studies in man (Riggs et al., 1981). The beneficial effects of administering THC with another antiemetic, prochlorperazine, have been referred to above. Considering the central nervous system depressant action of these agents, it would be wise to be cautious when administering them with other, CNS depressants, such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, antidepressants and alcohol. The interaction between marijuana smoking and the enhanced metabolism of

Clinical Use Of Agents

Dal anti-inflammatory agent e.g., aspirin (ASA) or ibuprofen for mild to moderate pain. If the pain persists or increases, then treatment progresses to the second tier, where a narcotic analgesic is added to the regimen. Frequently, this is accomplished by use of a combination product such as ASA plus codeine that combines an opioid with a nonnarcotic analgesic. The third tier is reached when the pain escalates from moderate to severe. At this level the opioid may be used as a single agent, given that opioids do not have a ceiling to their analgesic effect as do the nonnarcotic analgesics such as ASA and APAP (20). Adjuvant drugs, such as tricyclic antidepressants or an-ticonvulsants, may be added to opioid therapy as a means to enhance the efficacy of opioids for pain relief (17, 21).

Pediatric Bipolar Depression

ALTHOUGH AFFECTIVE DISORDERS IN youths are lately receiving much more attention, they continue to be a diagnostic puzzle. It is estimated that 5 of children and adolescents suffer from major depression, 4 from dysthymia, and 1 from bipolar depression (Lewinsohn et al. 1993). Depression in children and adolescents is a serious condition, associated with considerable morbidity and mortality (Kovacs 1996). As discussed in Chapter 1, Diagnosis of Bipolar Depression, bipolar depression as a clinical entity is underdiagnosed in adults and commonly undiagnosed in children. Pediatric depression was not officially recognized until 1975 (Raskin et al. 1978). Since then, it has been conclusively documented both in the psychiatric community and in clinical settings (Angold 1988a, 1988b Fleming and Offord 1990). The decision to utilize adult criteria to diagnose depression in children can be traced to a 1975 conference at the National Institute of Mental Health, and the practice continues in...

Preventing Reinfarction

The active intervention arm received two or three treatment components group cognitive behavior therapy, provision of social support, and, if necessary, antidepressant medication. A comparison group received usual care. Although the intervention appeared to lower levels of depression more than reductions achieved in the usual care condition, there were no differences in survival between the two groups in the 2 years following infarction. More detailed discussion of depression and cardiovascular events is considered in Chapter 32.

Cultural Issues in Treatment Planning A Case Example

Dolores, a 43-year-old American Indian woman, came to counseling because she was suffering from sadness, inability to concentrate, insomnia, and anhedo-nia. These depressive symptoms were associated with two major concerns. First, Dolores was very upset because her husband of 23 years, Gabe, was suffering from a serious gambling addiction but was refusing to go to treatment. Second, Dolores was worried that, because of her diminished functioning and her husband's gambling, she might lose custody of her adopted daughter, Sage.

Background Gender Differences in Cardiac Rehabilitation

A large US study15 with 1084 women and 1397 men with a minor or major depression were treated when indicated with an SSRI or cognitive behavioral therapy. The intervention did not increase event-free survival, but less depression and less social isolation occurred in the intervention group. Depressive disorders have a clear relationship with CHD. There is overwhelming evidence that major depressions are underdiagnosed and untreated in patients with CHD. Approximately one in five patients have a major depression at the time of a cardiac event.20 Depression will also increase the risk of new cardiac events.21 In patients with CHD, the prevalence of major depression is nearly 20 and for minor depression 27 .22

Physiological Studies

For example, N1-P2 augmenting was reported to be related to risk for suicidal behavior, regardless of diagnosis (Buchsbaum et al. 1977), and to be inversely proportional to serotonergic function (Brocke et al. 2000 Hegerl et al. 2001) decreased amplitude and delayed onset of P300 was associated with anhedonia (Dubal et al. 2000). One problem in identifying these results is that some of the bipolar depressed patients may have been experiencing mixed episodes, with manic features accounting for some of the findings that differentiated them from nonbipolar depressed patients.

Peripheral Neuropathy

The pain arising from damage to peripheral nerves can be extremely difficult to control satisfactorily. Patients will commonly describe their pain as a constant burning, tearing or pricking sensation. Diabetic neuropathy is a good example and for some patients the use of tricyclic antidepressants or anticonvulsants is satisfactory. However, for others, these may be ineffective. Conventional analgesics are often of little use.

Is This Pain or Abuse

A major change occurred when their son moved out. Her husband became increasingly menacing. About the same time, she sought psychiatric help for depression and was put on antidepressant medication. She failed to disclose her marital situation to the psychiatrist. The abuse gradually escalated to the point of physical violence. Just about a year before her first visit to the pain clinic, she was hit by her husband around her shoulders. She became very fearful of him as she was totally unsure of how and why she invited his wrath. Rita finally told their son about the hitting, but he just did not believe her. His view of his father was that of a gentle and kind soul who would not hurt a fly. In fact, her husband encouraged her to go to the police. They would see her as a crazy woman and would never believe her. This was her dilemma that no one would believe that her husband was an abusive man.

Introduction Analysis Of Urinary Drugs In Clinical And Forensic Toxicology

Clinical and forensic toxicology is concerned with the detection, identification, and measurement of toxic compounds and their metabolites in human body fluids and tissues. Most often the toxic compounds are drugs taken either accidentally or intentionally in quantities sufficient to cause an adverse reaction or death. Analysis and identification of a possible drug or drug combinations, toxicological drug screening and confirmation should encompass as many different classes of drugs as possible. The most important classes being salicylate, paracetamol, antiepileptics, antidepressants, neuroleptics, hypnotics (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, diphenhydramine), digoxin, and theophylline, as well as many illicit drugs, such as opiates, methadone, D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), cocaine, and or its major metabolite benzoylecgonine, cannabinoids and amphetamines. Currently, urinary drug monitoring has established itself as the basis of clinical and forensic toxicology. It is also the...

Binary Concept Of Pain And Addiction

For example, stress can increase pain (8). A pain patient who takes inappropriate additional doses of his or her opioid medication after stressful situations to treat anxiety must be educated that this is not the correct response to the situation. Behavior therapy to improve coping skills is indicated. Specific pharmacotherapy with medications that are less likely to be misused, such as the Selective Serotonin Reuptate Inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants or tiagabine hydrochloride (Gabitril ) also may be indicated to treat the anxiety. This is an appropriate biopsychosocial approach to the problem that can lead to a sustainable solution to the patient's problem.

Helplessness and Depression

Seligman (1975) argued that the research on learned helplessness provides a model for clinical depression. For example, there is evidence that helplessness is involved in the relationship between alcohol dependence and depression (Sitharthan, Hough, Sitharthan, & Kavanagh, 2001). More generally, thousands of people each year are diagnosed as depressive. These individuals show insomnia, report feeling tired, often say that life is not worth living, have difficulty performing routine tasks, and may be suicidal. Clinical depression is severe, long lasting, and is not easily traced to a recent environmental experience. Seligman (1975) has suggested that the behavior of helpless dogs may be relevant to the origin and treatment of clinical depression. Depression may arise when a person has a history of inescapable abuse. This could occur when a parent, spouse, or caretaker unreasonably and severely mistreats a child, partner, or elderly person. In other writings, Seligman and his co-workers...

Womens Health Premenstrual Syndrome PMS

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of symptoms that generally appear 4 to 10 days before menstruation and end, often abruptly, as menstruation begins. The most common symptoms are irritability, nervous tension, depression, mood swings, craving for sugary foods, breast tenderness, water retention, and weight gain.1 The symptoms of PMS can be mild or severe about one in five women have severe symptoms that interfere with daily activities. In many women, an imbalance of too much estrogen and too little progesterone triggers the symptoms of PMS.

Culturebound Syndromes

The information in Table 13.2 reveals many things about the broad field of mental health diagnostic systems. First, symptoms may be similar across cultures, but causes may be viewed very differently. (Psychotic thinking, anxiety, or depressive symptoms may be consistently described across cultures but attributed to satanic influence, bad behavior, brain disease, trauma, family patterns, learning, etc.) Second, causes of human distress (brain disease, trauma, exposure, grief, attachment loss or disturbance)

What Is the Nature of the Association

Not only do people with various clinical forms of major depression consistently report higher levels of neuroticism (Fanous, Gardner, Prescott, Cancro, & Kendler, 2002 Kendler, Gardner, & Prescott, 2002 Kendler, Kessler, Neale, Heath, & Eaves, 1993 Kendler, Neale, Kessler, Heath, & Eaves, 1993b Roberts & Kendler, 1999 Treloar, Martin, Bucholz, Madden, & Heath, 1999), but the association appears to be causal, because neuroticism or neuroticism-like traits can predict future cases of mood and anxiety disorders. Kendler and colleagues (1993b), in a study of 1733 same-sex female twin pairs, found that neuroticism was strongly related to lifetime prevalence of major depression. Neuroticism also predicted the prospective 1-year prevalence of major depression in those who, at time 1, denied previous depressive episodes, and this was not merely because of overlap with prodromal symptoms of major depression. noses of major depression, dysthymia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), panic...

Sources of Covariance among Neuroticism Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders

Based on data from the Australian Twin Registry, Jardine and colleagues (1984) examined the covariance between the symptoms of anxiety and depression, using a shortened version of the Delusion Symptoms States Inventory (Bedford & Deary, 1997 Foulds & Bedford, 1975) as well as the Neuroticism scale from the EPQ (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975). Their results revealed that the phenotypic covariation between the two measures could be best explained by a single genetic factor common to both measures. There was no evidence for genetic factors specific to one measure and having no influence on the other. In a longitudinal design based on 1733 same-sex female twin pairs, Kendler and colleagues (1993b) have estimated that the proportion in the observed correlation between neuroticism and the liability to major depression that could be explained by a shared genetic risk was approximately 70 . In the same study, extraversion was unrelated to lifetime or 1-year prevalence of major depression. Using the...

Christel M Middeldorp Danielle C Cath Mireille van den Berg A Leo Beem Richard van Dyck and Dorret I Boomsma

In all studies taking these approaches, neuroticism was related to major depression and anxiety disorders (Bienvenu et al., 2001 Brown, Chorpita, & Barlow, 1998 de Graaf, Bijl, ten Have, Beekman, & Vollebergh, 2004 Johnson, Turner, & Iwata, 2003 Krueger, McGue, & Iacono, 2001 Trull & Sher, 1994). In addition, all studies except one (Johnson et al., 2003) found a relation between low extraversion and one or more of the anxiety disorders, although results were not always consistent on the level of specific diagnoses (Bienvenu et al., 2001 Brown et al., 1998 Trull & Sher, 1994). Results were contradictory regarding the relation between low extraversion and major depression. Brown and colleagues (1998) and Trull and Sher (1994) did find an association, whereas Bienvenu and colleagues (2001) and Johnson and colleagues (2003) did not. Krueger and colleagues (2001) found that internalization a factor on which depression and anxiety disorders loaded correlated negatively with positive...

Psychopharmacologic Interventions Potential Prophylactic Effects

Appropriate maintenance treatment is essential to the well-being of bipolar patients. Although mood stabilization tends to be the immediate goal of psychopharmacologic intervention, clinicians should also consider potential suicidality when treating a bipolar patient. Appropriate maintenance treatment can substantially reduce the risk of suicide (Ba-ethge et al. 2003 Coppen and Farmer 1998 Tondo and Baldessarini 2000, 2001a), but how do we decide what constitutes appropriate maintenance when it comes to suicide prevention Although a variety of mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and antipsychotics have been the focus of research in this realm, the answer is not eminently clear. A third meta-analysis of 32 randomized, controlled trials was recently reported (Cipriani et al. 2005). In these studies, 1,389 patients were randomized to lithium and 2,069 to other agents, including placebo (n 779), antidepressants (n 247), and other mood stabilizers and combination treatments. Lithium...

Klaus Peter Lesch and Turhan Canli

Brain serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in a number of physiological processes and pathological conditions. These effects are mediated by at least 14 different 5-HT receptors. Although multiple lines of evidence implicate the 5-HT1A receptor in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and depression, as well as in the mechanism of action of anxiolytics and antidepressants, its relevance to the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs has been a matter of considerable debate (Griebel, 1995 Hensler, 2003 Hjorth et al., 2000 Lesch, Zeng, Reif, & Gutknecht, 2003).

Methods for Locating Genes

Linkage, the oldest of these methods, has been used in genetic studies for many years. Some of the very early psychiatric studies applied this technique to finding gene locations for mental illness by using knowledge of Mendelian patterns of transmission. For example, George Winokur, who was chairman of the department of psychiatry at Iowa for many years and an eminent investigator of bipolar disorder, made the observation that manic-depressive illness and red-green color blindness co-occurred in some families. He also noted that father-to-son transmission rarely occurred in bipolar disorder. This led him to propose that bipolar illness might be linked to the X chromosome. Although this observation has not been consistendy replicated, perhaps because the gene is one of small effect in a polygenic multifactorial disorder, it may point to one of the genes involved in bipolar illness. As the search for disease continues, investigators must also worry about another problem environmental...

Genetic Variation In The 5ht Transporter

In their initial study, Lesch and colleagues (1996) also demonstrated that individuals carrying the S allele are slightly more likely to display abnormal levels of anxiety than are L L homozygotes. Since their original report, others have confirmed the association between the 5-HTTLPR S allele and heightened anxiety (Du, Bakish, & Hrdina, 2000 Katsuragi et al., 1999 Mazzanti et al., 1998 Melke et al., 2001), and have also demonstrated that individuals possessing the S allele more readily acquire conditioned fear responses (Garpenstrand, Annas, Ekblom, Oreland, & Fredrikson, 2001) and develop affective illness (Lesch & Mossner, 1998) than do those homozygous for the L allele. Recent studies utilizing pharmacological challenge paradigms of the 5-HT system suggest that these differences in affect, mood, and temperament may reflect 5-HTTLPR-driven variation in 5-HTT expression and subsequent changes in synaptic concentrations of 5-HT (Moreno et al., 2002 Neumeister et al., 2002 Whale,...

Bipolar Depression

Valproic acid (usually in the divalproex formulation) is the most widely used mood stabilizer in the treatment of bipolar disorder in the United States. This is due to the documented efficacy of the divalproex formulation in acute mania (Bowden et al. 1994) and effective marketing by Abbott Laboratories. Nevertheless, the utility of valproic acid in bipolar depression is not well characterized. The utility of divalproex in the depressive symptoms of acute mania (Swann et al. 1997) and mixed mania (Calabrese et al. 1992) has been generalized to include efficacy in bipolar depression. At least one study shows that divalproex may be more effective in depressed type II bipolar patients. In an open, 12-week, monotherapy study of medication-naive (n 11) or mood stabilizer-naive (n 8, treated previously with antidepressants or stimulants) bipolar II patients, 63 of patients were considered responders ( 50 decrease on Ham-D scores) (Winsberg et al. 2001). This result was due primarily to...

Acute Efficacy in Bipolar I Disorder

In the acute phase, a good amount of evidence suggests that antidepres-sants are more effective than placebo (mostly in the absence of concomitant mood stabilizer) or that certain antidepressants may be more effective than others in RCTs of the acute major depressive episode in bipolar disorder (Amsterdam 1998 Amsterdam et al. 1998 Cohn et al. 1989 Himmelhoch et al. 1982, 1991 Simpson et al. 1991 Thase et al. 1992). Those early studies did not use concomitant mood stabilizers. In the only RCT to assess antidepressant efficacy in lithium-treated patients, imipramine and paroxetine were not overall more effective than placebo when added to lithium for treatment of the acute depressive symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder type I. However, in a secondary analysis of those with low lithium levels (

Acute Efficacy in Bipolar II Disorder

Some investigators suggest that antidepressants may be effective in type II bipolar depression. In a post hoc pooled analysis of unipolar RCTs, 89 bipolar II subjects were identified in a cohort of 839 fluoxetine- Recently, the same investigators (Amsterdam et al. 2004) openly administered fluoxetine monotherapy at a fixed dose of 20 mg day to 37 depressed type II bipolar subjects. Twenty-three patients (62 ) completed the 8-week study. Of these, 11 (48 of completers, 30 of intent to treat sample) responded with a reduction in Ham-D (17-item) scores of 50 . Young Mania Scale scores did not appreciably increase above baseline in the sample but three patients experienced hypomania (8.1 ) and one stopped the study due to a rapid mood swing into a depression (Amsterdam et al. 2004). There was no placebo arm, so the switch rate of 8 could not be compared with the natural switch rate of this sample. prove efficacy of antidepressants in type II bipolar depression, namely a prospective,...

Prophylactic Efficacy in Bipolar Disorder

All of the above discussion only relates to acute efficacy. What should one do when the patient is currently depressed If one uses an antidepressant, the next question is what should be done after recovery from the current depression. If the patient responds to an antidepressant, should it be continued or not In other words, do antidepressants prevent new depressive episodes in bipolar disorder The available evidence suggests that, overall, antidepressants do not appear to have long-term preventive benefits in bipolar depression. There have been six double-blind RCTs of prophylaxis of bipolar disorder with antidepressants (Ghaemi et al. 2003). Those studies all compared imipramine with placebo or with lithium. In all cases, imipramine alone or with the addition of lithium were not more effective than lithium alone in the prevention of mood episodes in bipolar disorder. In all cases, there was no added benefit from using imipramine long term. Thus, if one were to conduct a systematic...

Gene Environment Interactions

Given that genes may be expressed through the creation of environmental risks, genetic influences are also hypothesized to influence an individual's susceptibility to such risks (gene-environment interaction). An alternative way of conceptualizing these interaction effects is that the occurrence of the environmental risk factor elicits or activates the genetic predisposition to the pheno-type. In either scenario, an interaction arises when one variable (e.g., a genetic risk factor) has differential effects at varying levels of the other (e.g., an environmental risk factor). We can better illustrate this point by means of a figure. Figure 16.1 presents the results of a family-based design, which utilized data from 1818 adolescent offspring and 1294 parents from the G1219 study (a large community U.K.-based study investigating familial resemblance for emotional and behavioral problems) to examine the effects of parental education and genetic vulnerability on adolescent depressive...

Children At Risk For Depression

Research examining depression during childhood and adolescence clearly demonstrates that children can become depressed. Although depressive disorders are less common in early childhood, prevalence rates of depression become comparable to rates in adults by middle adolescence. Consequently, investigators have postulated that mood disorders usually have their first manifestation in middle to late adolescence, making this a particularly vulnerable period for the development of depression (Hankin et al., 1998). Importantly, follow-up studies have shown that depression in childhood and adolescence tends to recur (Kovacs & Paulaukas, 1984), and that continuity exists between childhood and adult mood disorders. Indeed, longitudinal studies have found that children and adolescents with depression tend to have recurrent depressive episodes as adults (e.g., Harrington, Fudge, Rutter, Pickles, & Hill, 1990). Moreover, Pine, Cohen, Gurley, Brook, and Ma (1998) found that depressive disorders in...

Neurotransmission and ADD

Depression, a disease that involves feelings of helplessness, despair, and thoughts of suicide, may be caused by or result in decreased levels of the neu-rotransmitter serotonin. Antidepressants blocking the actions of enzymes that degrade serotonin or inhibit its reuptake help alleviate many symptoms of this disease in some people.

Psychotherapy Treatment Of Nuclear Symptoms And Associated Problems

There are several problems often associated with bipolar disorders that may worsen the quality of life of patients and therefore deserve special attention. Patients may run into problems during their adjustment to a diagnosis common reactions to receiving a diagnosis of a severe, chronic illness are denial, anger, ambivalence, and anxiety (Goodwin and Jamison 1990). It is essential for the clinician to respond appropriately in order to to improve illness awareness, treatment compliance, and avoid self-esteem problems (Colom and Vieta 2002a, 2002b). Another problem that should be carefully addressed by therapists is a patient's feeling of loss and grief after the loss of real or abstract objects, such as a job (which is mentioned by 70 of patients and their partners as the most relevant difficulty in the long term Targum et al. 1981 ), job status (which affects more than 30 of patients Harrow et al. 1990 ), economic status, and loss of love relationships and family support. All of...

Future Directions For Practice And Research

UNTIL RELATIVELY RECENTLY, the development of new pharmacological treatments for depression focused so much on unipolar depression that major depression and unipolar seemed almost to be synonymous. Perhaps bipolar depression had taken a back seat because, until recently, all of the agents developed specifically for the treatment of bipolar disorder were introduced as antimanic agents. When depression did occur in a bipolar patient, it was treated with the same antidepressant agents developed for unipolar depression. Now, with the development of new agents (lamotrigine and perhaps also quetiapine) that may be more effective for bipolar than for unipolar depression, interest in bipolar depression has heightened. Another reason for this new emphasis on bipolar depression is recent longitudinal research indicating that depression represents the bulk of the morbidity associated with bipolar disorder. This component of the illness lasts much longer than the manic component, is harder to...

From Clinical Phenomenology To Diagnostic Validity

The first subject that future research must clarify is the diagnostic validity of our current classification scheme. Considering just depression per se, are the bipolar and unipolar forms different Unfortunately the structure of DSM-IV-TR distinguishes bipolar disorder as a separate illness distinct from all other mood disorders (i.e., from the depressive disorders). Thus, the current DSM system obscures the fact that, originally, the bipolar-unipolar distinction was conceived of as a way to distinguish two forms of a recurrent illness. In other words, the DSM structure gives precedence to polarity over cyclicity or recurrence, thereby obscuring the reality that one rather common variant of unipolar illness is as recurrent or cyclic, much like bipolar illness. Kraepelin's original focus on course and recurrence has been lost to the detriment of research and practice. Just as the wastebasket of disorders subsumed under the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder is...

Directions For Genetic Research

In one study, liability to major depression or generalized anxiety disorder was explained by a genetic model involving a large contribution of additive, nonmendelian genetic inheritance and a smaller contribution of specific environmental effects ( the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune ) no significant contribution could be found for either mendelian genetic inheritance (i.e., dominant or recessive qualitative patterns, as opposed to additive quantitative patterns) or for shared (i.e., family) environmental effects (Kendler et al. 1993b). This result would suggest that psychosocial research should concentrate on current environmental stressors rather than childhood or family experiences, as has traditionally been the case. Further work is needed to confirm or refute these suggestive findings. To expand on this theme, one of the most consistently observed associations between early psychosocial factors and the development of mental disorders in adults has been the...

Advances In Clinical Psychopharmacology

Without doubt, the greatest practical advance in the treatment of bipolar depression has been the development of lamotrigine as a mood stabilizer with a prominent long-term benefit for depressive symptoms (Calabrese et al. 2003). Despite its small, but real, risk for StevensJohnson syndrome, lamotrigine is also generally well tolerated, thus providing patients an alternative to other mood stabilizers (which have only modest effects against depression and substantially more side effects) and antidepressants (which carry some risk of long-term destabi-lization in addition to more side effects). Nevertheless, many patients still do not respond to or do not tolerate lamotrigine. Unfortunately, the last decade has not seen much progress in knowledge about the efficacy and safety of traditional antidepressants in bipolar depression. As reviewed in a recent meta-analysis (Gijsman et al. 2004), only five placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of antidepressants seem to exist,...

Integrating Biological And Psychosocial Aspects Of Mood Disorder

Certainly, an important goal is to integrate psychopharmacological clinical trials with psychotherapeutic aims of treatment and to include combinations of the two treatment modalities as well. This research has valuable practical implications for instance, current data suggest that decisions regarding medication as a component of treatment versus psychotherapy alone (specifically, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioral therapy) should be based more on the nature of the symptoms and especially on whether an illness is recurrent or not, than on speculative etiological bases for the illness. The latter point regarding recurrence is reinforced by Frank et al.'s (1990) landmark study comparing imip-ramine, interpersonal therapy, a combination of the two, and placebo, in which those with three or more episodes responded better to medication or combination treatment than to psychotherapy alone. In other studies of patients with one or two episodes of illness, CBT tended to be as effective as...

Ethics And Public Policy New Questions

Profession needs to be more involved in communicating with and participating in governmental structures to ensure that such funding is available. As the federal budget is tightened in the United States, research funding is increasingly found in the private sector, mainly in the pharmaceutical industry. For investigators participating in pharmaceutical industry-sponsored research, it is necessary not only to appreciate the benefits that accrue for both the industry and society from advances in this research, but also to recognize that the private sector may have financial interests that may not be shared by society at large. The recent debate about antidepressants and risk of suicide (Cipriani et al. 2005) has brought this issue to the forefront. As scientists, future researchers will have to continue to promote the needs of science and society as primary, while also acknowledging that much less research would be possible without the involvement of the pharmaceutical industry....

Druginduced liver damage

Sedatives, antidepressants and antiepilepsy drugs should be avoided or used with extreme caution in patients with advanced liver disease, and particularly those with current or recent hepatic encephalopathy. Enhanced sensitivity of the CNS to such drugs is well documented and adds to the pharmacokinetic changes. Treatment of alcohol withdrawal in patients with established liver disease using chlormethiazole is hazardous, especially given i.v. The temptation to give initial large doses to control agitation must be avoided because this drug, which normally has a high hepatic extraction, can readily accumulate to toxic concentrations. Chlordiazepoxide is preferred. Acute hepatocellular necrosis. This reaction varies from a transient disturbance of liver function tests to acute hepatitis. It can be induced by several drugs including general anaesthetics (halothane), antiepileptics (carbamazepine, phenytoin, sodium valproate, ph nobarbital), antidepressants (MAO...

Stress And Glucocorticoid Effects On Learning And Memory

Studies in humans also support a link between high circulating GC levels and poor learning and memory, although these impairments are not specific to hippo-campal function. However, two studies in nonhuman primates have indicated that GC receptors are expressed in the frontal and prefrontal cortices at levels similar to or greater than the hippocampus 10, 68 , predicting that GC effects on memory may not be greatest in hippocampus-dependent tasks in the primate. Injection of synthetic cortisol in young adults during the peak (highest level) or trough (lowest level) of the diurnal rhythm of endogenous secretion produced an impairment or facilitation of memory, depending on the time of injection 68 . That is, at the highest levels (the combination of both exogenous and endogenous GCs), acutely elevated GCs impaired performance, while at the lowest levels, performance improved. Repeated injections of synthetic cortisol over ten days in healthy, young adult humans have been shown to...

Table 92 Symptoms of Depression

The difference between these normal fluctuations in mood and a diagnosable illness depends on three things the number of symptoms, their severity, and their duration. The criteria that psychiatrists use to diagnose a major depression, as specified in their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV), require that at least five symptoms be present most of the day, nearly every day, for at least two weeks, and that depressed mood or markedly diminished interest or pleasure be among these five symptoms. Further, the symptoms must be an obvious change from the person's usual state. These criteria provide a useful way to place a somewhat arbitrary dividing line between mild but normal blues and pathological blues. who have this type of depression are particularly sensitive to slights and rejections. Unlike the person with melancholia, whose mood does not respond by brightening up when something pleasant occurs, people with atypical depression respond intensely to both positive and negative...

How Are Mood Disorders Treated

The treatment of mood disorders is one of the biggest success stories in modern psychiatry, or for that matter in modern medicine. Effective treatments are available for both mania and depression. Four general classes of treatment are available mood stabilizers, antidepressants, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychotherapy. Mood stabilizers are primarily used to treat bipolar disorder. As the name suggests, they abort the activity of the emotional roller coaster and even out the mood swings so that the emotional temperature fluctuates mildly around the zero point. Because bipolar disorder is a very debilitating illness, mood stabilizers are a godsend to people who previously used to swing between mania and depression. Because being high can be subjectively fun for a person with mania, people with this condition sometimes dislike mood stabilizers because they get rid of the highs. Usually, however, people with mania eventually develop insight about the destructive effects of manic...

Pubertal Timing Effects

Early maturation has been repeatedly associated with more internalizing symptoms and psychological distress in girls, compared to on-time or later maturing peers (Brooks-Gunn et al., 1985 Ge et al., 1996 Graber et al., 1997 Graber et al., 2003 Hayward et al., 1997 Stattin & Magnusson, 1990). During early adolescence, girls begin to manifest higher levels of diagnosed depression and depressive symptoms than boys. By adulthood, rates of depression are approximately 2 to 3 times higher among women than men (Culbertson, 1997 Petersen et al., 1993). In a longitudinal study investigating links between pubertal transition and depressive symptoms in rural White youth living in Iowa, girls began to experience more depression than boys in the eighth grade and this difference persisted through mid- and late adolescence (Ge, Conger, & Elder, 2001a). Girls who experienced menarche at a younger age subsequently experienced a higher level of depressive symptoms than their on-time and late-maturing...

The Finnish Heart Association

The Finnish Heart Association has developed a new type of outpatient care program that can be implemented with reduced resources. The TULPPA program (the name is derived from the Finnish word for thrombus ) was designed to support the follow-up care of cardiac patients. The program has already been used in 30 municipalities in eastern and northern Finland. The program's primary goal is to strengthen the self-care skills and advocate lifestyle changes for patients, but also to alleviate any fears the disease may have brought on, intervene in good time if there are depressive symptoms, find the right level of exercise, and encourage patients to join peer and self-help groups. The rehabilitation is part of normal public healthcare work, with the Heart Association responsible for training the group leaders as well as producing the material.

Psychological Meaning Of Pubertal Change Meaning of Pubertal Changes to Girls

Girls tend to experience the normal height and weight changes of puberty negatively, particularly increases in weight and or fat. More advanced pubertal development has been associated with less satisfaction with weight and to perceptions of being overweight for girls but not for boys (Tobin-Richards et al., 1990 Tyrka, Graber, & Brooks-Gunn, 2000). Weight-related negative body image, weight dissatisfaction, and weight concerns were associated with increased depressive symptoms in a sample of early adolescent girls, even when controlling for objective weight status (Rierdan & Koff, 1997). It is likely that girls more often experience increased body size negatively due to the media images in Western cultures that value the thin physique of a prepubertal body over the mature body for girls (Attie & Brooks-Gunn, 1989 Parker et al., 1995).

Brain Energy Metabolism In Bipolar Depression

Positron emission tomography (PET) studies report reduced blood flow in depressed mood states, including bipolar depression (Baxter et al. 1985 Drevets et al. 1997 Ketter et al. 2001). PET studies reported lower fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the prefrontal and temporal cortexes and higher uptake in the occipital cortex of depressed patients compared with healthy controls, although in manic states the reverse direction of results was less clear. Single-photon emission computed tomography studies suggested lower cerebral blood flow in the frontal and temporal cortexes of bipolar disorder patients, particularly in the left hemisphere (Strakowski et al. 2000). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides a noninvasive window into brain neurochemistry. Decreased beta and total nucleotide triphosphate (primarily ATP) was reported in major depression in the frontal lobe (Volz et al. 1998) and basal ganglia (Moore et al. 1997). Kato et al. (1992) reported that creatine phosphate (CP)...

Postinfectious fatigue syndromes

It is noteworthy that these reports of chronic EBV infection made no reference to earlier prospective research which reported that both delayed recovery from glandular fever and the emergence of clinical features following EBV infection are linked to psychological factors (Kasl, Evans and Niederman 1979). Indeed, such findings were not only restricted to glandular fever. In a series of impressive prospective studies Imboden and colleagues demonstrated that ongoing symptoms from other acute infections such as influenza and brucellosis were largely dependent on psychological factors (Imboden, Canter and Cluff 1961 Imboden et al. 1959). These authors interpreted their results as suggesting that viral infections trigger depressive symptoms in psychologically vulnerable individuals. The clinical symptoms of depression become intertwined with the symptoms of acute infection, resulting in the experience of ongoing symptoms which patients often attribute to their initial viral infection. For...

Molecular And Functional Imaging Of The 5ht1a Receptor

While 5-HT1A receptors display high density in the limbic and cortical regions critically involved in mood regulation, PET studies have reported reduced 5-HT1A receptor binding in these regions in patients with major depression (Bhagwagar, Rabiner, Sargent, Grasby, & Cowen, 2004 Drevets et al., 1999 Sargent et al., 2000) and PD (Neumeister et al., 2004).

Current Situation and Functioning

This 53-year-old man is clearly suffering from an adjustment disorder. Although he also meets the diagnostic criteria for major depression, I am reluctant to assign this diagnosis because his depressive symptoms are so strongly associated with his recent life change, and he has no personal and minimal family history of a mood disorder. Mr. Smith is also experiencing numerous significant anxiety symptoms, which may actually be more central than his depressive symptoms in interfering with his ability to seek new employment. Similarly, a case could also be made for assigning him an anxiety disorder diagnosis, but again, the abrupt onset of these symptoms in direct association with his job loss suggests that his current mental state is better accounted for with a less severe diagnostic label. His provisional DSM-IV-TR multiaxial diagnosis follows Rule Out (R O) 296.21 Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode, Mild Axis II No Diagnosis on Axis II (V71.09) Axis III None Note that in the...

Antidepressant Induced Mood Destabilization andor Rapid Cycling

Whether antidepressants can destabilize mood in the long run has been controversial. The best evidence for such an effect comes from three RCTs. In the first study, manic episodes were reported almost 2.5 times more frequently in bipolar type I patients with double-blind treatment of lithium plus imipramine (24 ) compared with lithium alone (10 ) over a mean 1.6-year follow-up (Quitkin et al. 1986). These results were statistically significant in the female subgroup. Depressive relapse rates were similar for lithium alone (10 ) compared with lithium plus imi-pramine. The third controlled study assessed 51 rapid-cycling patients who were admitted to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) over a 10-year period (Wehr et al. 1988). Nonrandomized assessments of treatment response history suggested antidepressants were associated with rapid cycling in 51 of patients. After prospective, double-blind, randomized replacement of antidepressant with placebo, the study concluded that 33...

Antidepressantassociated Chronic Irritable Dysphoria

In 1987, Akiskal and Mallya introduced the notion of antidepressant-induced, chronic symptoms that include irritability and sleep disturbance in relatives of bipolar patients who have only manifested unipolar depressions. These patients developed a syndrome that consists of 1) unrelenting dysphoria, 2) severe agitation, 3) refractory anxiety, 4) unendurable sexual excitement, 5) intractable insomnia, 6) suicidal obsessions and impulses, and 7) histrionic demeanor (Akiskal and Mallya 1987). More recently, El-Mallakh and Karippot (2005) have described a chronic irritable depressive state that develops after long-term (several years) treatment with antidepressants in both type I and type II patients. This syndrome is specifically manifested by a triad of dyspho-ria, middle insomnia, and irritability, and thus has been labeled antide-pressant-associated chronic irritable dysphoria (ACID). Patients with ACID invariably experience significant social and occupational dysfunction such as...

Family Income and Early Child Care

The NICHD Study of Early Child Care is a longitudinal study in which Huston is an investigator following 1,364 children from birth through adolescence, and includes observations of whatever child-care settings parents selected for their children. Participants were recruited from hospitals located at 10 sites across the United States in 1991. Interviews with parents, evaluations of children, and observations of both parent-child interaction and children's child-care or school settings were conducted when children were 6, 15, 24, 36, and 54 months old and in first grade. Measures included maternal education (in years), child's race and ethnicity, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting quality scores derived from videotaped observations of mother-child interactions, and observed home

The Health of the Partners Spouses and the Children

Even a passing review of the literature on the health of caregivers of chronically ill patients provides, ample evidence of the vulnerability of the caregivers on many fronts. One study, for example, found that depression was a major predictor of caregiver well-being in a sample of 142 caregivers of chronically ill family members (Berg-Weger et al., 2000). Depression explained 56 of the variance in activities of daily living, and 64 of the variance in basic needs. Depression also emerged as a mediator between stress and well-being. Another study investigated spouse-caregiver attachment style and the couple's communication style on spouse-caregiver depression and marital satisfaction in a group of 52 couples where one spouse had cancer, Alzheimer's disease, or stroke (Harkness, 1997). The conclusion was that depressive symptoms were common among the caregivers. Women who were anxiously attached, who encountered disagreement from their ill partners after trying to engage them in...

TABLE 161 Disorders of Mood

Mood disorders may be either depressive or bipolar. A bipolar disorder includes manic or hypomanic features as well as depressive ones. Four types of episodes, described below, are combined in different ways in diagnosis of mood disorders. A major depressive disorder includes only one or more major depressive episodes. A bipolar I disorder includes one or more manic or mixed episodes, usually accompanied by major depressive episodes. A bipolar II disorder includes one or more major depressive episodes accompanied by at least one hypomanic episode. Major Depressive Episode A mixed episode, which must last at least 1 week, meets the criteria for both manic and major depressive episodes. Numerous periods of hypomanic and depressive symptoms that last for at least 2 years (1 year in children and adolescents). Freedom from symptoms lasts no more than 2 months at a time.

Coping by limiting activity

Most CFS patients believe that rest and reduced activity is helpful in controlling symptoms, while maintaining activity is unhelpful (Ray, Jefferies and Weir 1995). This limiting coping style, distinguishes CFS patients from depressed patients, suggests that this form of coping may be one of the defining features of the illness (Moss-Morris 1997).

Neuropsychiatric Manifestations

Irritability is one of the hardest side effects of IFN to deal with, and can be most disturbing to patients and their families. The authors strongly counsel patients and their families that irritability is common, and needs to be reported to the physician. Mild anxiolytic agents, such as Buspar, 5-10 mg bid or at night, can markedly improve the irritability associated with IFN. If the irritability progresses into severe mood swings and emotional lability, lithium can be used. If there is a component of depression with the irritability, Paxil, 20-40 mg d, which is both an antidepressant and anxiolytic, can be useful. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the antidepressants of choice for treating IFN-induced depression. First, these agents appear to be well-tolerated and safe in patients with liver disease. Fluoxetine has a positive impact on the mental slowing associated with IFN, and venlafaxine and buproprion have stimulating effects that also help the mental...

Vagus Nerve Stimulation

Rush et al. (2005a) reported a randomized, sham-controlled study of VNS in treatment-resistant depression in 210 subjects with major depressive disorder and 25 bipolar depressed subjects. VNS and sham were administered for 10 weeks after a 2-week surgical recovery period. At the end of the study there was no significant difference in the primary outcome measure, the Ham-D. However, subjective improvement measured by the Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report (IDS-SR30) was significantly greater in the active group (17 response) versus the sham group (7.3 response, P 0.03) (Rush et al. 2005a). When these patients continued to receive active, open VNS in the ensuing 12 months (n 185 major depression, n 20 bipolar), 27.2 achieved remission (defined as a Ham-D score50 reduction in baseline scores) were 40 for the Ham-D and 50 for the MADRS. Symptomatic responses (accompanied by substantial functional improvement) have been largely sustained during long-term follow-up to date....

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Numerous studies have focused on evaluating efficacy and safety of TMS in unipolar depression, but only a small number of studies have been done in bipolar depression. Nahas et al. (2003) carried out a left prefrontal rTMS study focusing on determination of the safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy of using TMS to treat the depressive symptoms of bipolar affective disorder. Twenty-three patients were randomly assigned to receive either daily left prefrontal rTMS (5 Hz, 110 motor threshold, 8 seconds on, 22 seconds off, over 20 minutes) or placebo (sham rTMS ) every morning for 2 weeks. No statistically significant difference between the two groups in the number of responders was found. Posttreatment, daily, subjective mood ratings showed a trend for improvement with active rTMS, compared with sham rTMS. In this pilot study, left prefrontal rTMS appeared safe in depressed bipolar subjects and the risk of inducing mania in such patients on medications was small.

Factors That Modulate ECG and Arrhythmic Manifestations of the Brugada Syndrome

ST segment elevation in the Brugada syndrome is often dynamic. The Brugada ECG is often concealed and can be unmasked or modulated by sodium channel blockers, a febrile state, vagotonic agents, a-adrenergic agonists, -adrenergic blockers, tricyclic or tetracyclic antidepressants, a combination of glucose and insulin, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, and by alcohol and cocaine toxicity (Brugada et al. 2000bc Miyazaki et al. 1996 Babaliaros and Hurst 2002 Goldgran-Toledano et al. 2002 Tada et al. 2001 Pastor et al. 2001 Ortega-Carnicer et al. 2001 Nogami et al. 2003 Araki et al. 2003). These agents may also induce acquired forms of the Brugada syndrome (Table 1). Until a definitive list of drugs to avoid in the Brugada syndrome is formulated, the list of agents in Table 1 may provide some guidance. 1. Tricyclic antidepressants 2. Tetracyclic antidepressants Maprotiline (Bolognesi et al. 1997)

Psychobiological Functioning Of Girls At Risk For Depression

Regulation and dysfunction appear to characterize children and adults while they are depressed, an important question concerns the role that these difficulties and deficits may play in the onset of this disorder. Unfortunately, as we described above, there is little research addressing this question. To begin to fill this gap, we have initiated a study examining the psychobiological functioning of a group of participants at elevated risk for the onset of depression. If dysfunction in the processing of emotional information, dysregulation of the HPA axis in response to stress, or abnormalities in patterns of neural activation contribute to the onset of a depressive episode, we would expect these characteristics to be observable in individuals who have not experienced an episode of depression, but who are at increased risk for the development of this disorder.

Prevalence and Persistence of Depression Following Myocardial Infarction

Depressive symptoms and major depression have been consistently reported as common psychological reactions to MI. Major depression, a syndrome characterized by persistently depressed mood, and or loss of interest and pleasure, with symptoms lasting for a minimum of 2 weeks, occurs with an annual prevalence of between 1 and 6 in the general population, with rates typically higher among patients following MI, at approximately 16-18 .12 Apart from major depression, depressive symptoms are quite prevalent among the general population, with rates ranging from 10 to 29 . Earlier studies of MI patients reported levels of depressive symptoms varying markedly, from 18 to 60 , although the majority of more recent studies report relatively consistent prevalence rates ranging from 17 to 37 .12 Little is known about the persistence of depression after an acute MI since few studies have repeatedly measured depression in the months following the event. However, it would appear that depressive...

Atypical Neuroleptics

It has been suggested that typical antipsychotics increase the severity of depression or the number of depressive episodes in long-term maintenance treatment of bipolar patients (Keck et al. 1998 Kukopulos et al. 1980), although older literature from the 1950s and the 1960s suggested they may have antidepressive effects (Barsa and Kline 1957). Typical an-tipsychotics are also characterized by distressing side effects, including extrapyramidal side effects and tardive dyskinesia (Kane 1988). Vieta et al. (2001c) conducted an open study with olanzapine in a group of 23 bipolar type I and type II patients experiencing frequent relapses, residual subsyndromal symptoms, and inadequate responses to mood stabilizers, such as lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine. Treatment was maintained throughout the study. Last-observation-carried-for-ward analysis showed that after the introduction of olanzapine, there was a significant reduction of Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scores for both manic...

Defeat Depression

Defeat Depression

Learning About How To Defeat Depression Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life And Success! Discover ways to cope with depression and melancholic tendencies! Depression and anxiety particularly have become so prevalent that it’s exceedingly common for individuals to be taking medication for one or even both of these mood disorders.

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