Dry Eye Causes and Treatment

Dry Eye Handbook The Ultimate Dry Eye Treatment

The Dry Eye Handbook is based on extensive independent research over a 10 year period. The publication is ideally suited for everything from mild to severe cases of dry eye. The Dry Eye Handbook has helped hundreds of dry eye sufferers to date, and its appreciated by individuals, larger organisations as well as ophthalmologists. You will learn: #1. How to diagnose your specific case of dry eye most doctors actually have a hard time getting this correct. #2. How to start a proper dry eye treatment dont waste time doing the wrong things, get off to a correct start quickly. #3. The best diet for dry eyes learn what to eat and drink to create the biggest impact on your eye health. #4. The best eye drops for dry eyes find out what eye drops you should use for your specific case of dry eyes. #5. The best supplements for dry eyes find out all there is about anti-inflammatory supplements, oil supplements and much more. #6. The newest treatments find out the best and most innovative treatments for dry eye (constantly updated) #7. How to treat Meibomian Gland Dysfunction find out all there is about the best supplements, eye drops, eyelid scrubs, eyelid massages, heat compresses, removing chalazia and styes and much, much more. #8. How to treat Blepharitis get the details on how to reduce inflammation by using the best supplements, diets, artificial tears, eyelid scrubs and much more. #9. How to treat Aqueous Tear Deficiency if youre suffering from a lack of tears or a incorrect composition of your tears I will show you how to increase tear production, stabilise the tear film and several additional areas that will improve your eye comfort considerably.

Dry Eye Handbook The Ultimate Dry Eye Treatment Summary

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Contents: EBook
Author: Daniel Anderson
Price: $47.95

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Ocular Surface Disorders

When a modification of the tear film structure occurs, with consequent tear film instability, ocular surface stress will develop, resulting in a clinical condition known as dry eye. The classification of this disorder was carried out in 1995 by the National Eye Institute, dividing dry eye into two different types aqueous layer disorders and tear evaporation disorders (32). This classification is very useful to focus on the main causative factors of the disorder, although the clinical presentation is often a mix of the two pathogenic pathways (i.e., a reduced aqueous production often results in an inadequate lipid layer spreading and in excessive tear film evaporation meibomian gland disease is commonly associated with reduced aqueous secretion by the lacrimal gland). Aqueous layer deficiency is the most common cause of dry eye and is dependent on decreased secretion of the lacrimal glands, although increased evaporation of tears may also be involved. Main causes of tear aqueous...

Effect on the Diseased Ocular Surface

HA eye drops have been used in several trials for the treatment of dry eye (63 - 69). The eyes of patients suffering from severe dry eye syndrome are characterized by a deterioration of the corneal epithelium with development of punctate erosions and increased permeability. The conjunctival epithelium of such patients presents squamous metaplasia with decreased or abnormal goblet cells (74) and hence the need for a tear replacement able to provide an environment in which the epithelium can recover the normal structure and function. A topical application of HA was shown to confer both subjective and objective improvement in patients with dry eye syndrome or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) (68,75-78). Condon et al. (79) have reported a reduction in cell degeneration as assessed by rose bengal. Accordingly, Wysenbeek et al. (80) indicated that HA is able to protect the corneal epithelium. In a controlled study aimed to explore the long-term effect of HA eye drops on the ocular surface...

Hyaluronan as a Tear Substitute

The therapy of dry eye was based for many years on the use of the so-called artificial tears, which are, to date, the mainstay for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. They were designed with a focus on physical properties relating to wetting of the ocular surface and usually were based on the presence of hydrophilic polymers, used with the intent to lubricate the eye during blinking. With this purpose, several artificial tears were designed using HA alone or in association with other molecules. Aiming to obtain an optimal solution for the treatment of ocular surface disorders, several molecular weights and several concentrations of HA were used in artificial tears formulation. HA used as a base for artificial tears can be produced from biological sources (the most frequent being rooster comb and certain strains of Streptococcus bacteria). The molecular weight used varies from 6-7 X 105 to 3 X 106 D. The concentration used varies from 0.015 to 0.4 according to the molecular weight used...

Summary and Conclusions

A topical application of HA has been shown to confer both subjective and objective improvement in patients with dry eye syndrome or keratoconjunc-tivitis sicca. 7. The treatment of severe aqueous deficient dry eye and dry eye states related to increased tear osmolarity benefit from a hypotonic solution of HA. HA is an essential component of tear film and the ocular surface. Its physical and chemical properties render it suitable for tear film replacement since it has been demonstrated that its administration proved to ameliorate the ocular surface in the course of dry eye disorders. Further studies are needed in order to achieve a better understanding about which physico-chemical characteristics, such as molecular weight and dilution, are more suitable to treat the various forms of ocular surface diseases.

Hyaluronan in Diseased Ocular Surface Tissues

The eyes of patients suffering from ocular surface disease such as dry eye are characterized by a deterioration of the corneal epithelium with a development of punctate erosions and increased permeability. Compared with normal eyes, the conjunctiva of such patients presents squamous metaplasia with decreased or abnormal goblet cells. In addition, HA and its receptor CD44 modify their pattern of distribution within the ocular surface structures.

Chronic Gvhd

The treatment of chronic GVHD has also been problematic with long-term immunosuppressive therapy required for many patients with symptomatic disease. With the routine use of PBPC, and the transplantation of older patients, the problem of extensive chronic GVHD has increased.9798 Treatment strategies must weigh the need to ameliorate the clinical manifestations of chronic GVHD against the risks of long-term (often lifetime) administration of immunosuppressive medications (including but not limited to infection, osteonecrosis, and secondary malignancy). Some recent series have focused on local control of chronic GVHD manifestations, such as oral cyclosporine rinses or ophthalmic cyclosporine solution for xerostomia and xerophthalmia, respectively.99100 Extracorporeal photopheresis has been shown to be an effective salvage strategy for patients with steroid refractory GVHD.101 The cumulative morbidity of immuno-suppressive therapy can hopefully be lessened with this approach. Long-term...