Reading Programs for Overcoming Dyslexia
This is a comprehensive guide covering the basics of dyslexia to a wide range of diagnostic procedures and tips to help you manage with your symptoms. These tips and tricks have been used on people with dyslexia of every varying degree and with great success. People just like yourself that suffer with adult dyslexia now feel more comfortable and relaxed in social and work situations.
With people with learning disabilities it may be possible to gain behaviours, when at least the site of the pain might be revealed. This will involve non-verbal communication and the ability to assess and interpret cues of all kinds. The sufferer in this situation may not even have the ability to think about their pain in other than simple, non-verbal concepts of unpleasantness, or avoidance. There will be an inability to explain the pain resulting from injury for example, depending on the degree of disability. The nature of the relationship developed between such a person and their carers will be vitally important in trying to gain some insight as to what they are experiencing. The observer must be looking for other signs of injury or disease which might indicate the presence of pain. Disturbed behaviour which might represent the frustration and agony that otherwise cannot be expressed must be studied for this possible interpretation.
The police rarely have difficulty recognizing moderate or severe learning difficulties, but borderline or low-to-normal intelligence may not be obvious even to trained observers (83-85). It is important to identify people with learning difficulties questions regarding reading and writing ability and the need for special help with education can be useful because they will be particularly vulnerable in police custody. Such individuals may have difficulties in understanding their legal rights and in communicating with police officers. They are also more likely to be impressionable and acquiescent (86).
Suboptimum micronutrient intake during childhood can be a cause of learning disability.11 Deficiencies of iron, magnesium, iodine, and zinc can reduce learning ability, and even marginal deficiencies can have subtle adverse effects. For example, moderate iron deficiency during early childhood and adolescence can decrease IQ and mental development.12,13 Along with minerals and vitamins, a rich supply of essential PUFAs is important. The omega-3 fatty acids (found in fish and shellfish) are critical to the formation of neurons and their supporting tissues in the brain during early childhood.14 Food sensitivities can play a role in learning disabilities in children, particularly sensitivities to food ad-
Both the Nicholls and Dweck perspectives point to the importance of developmental changes for understanding the emergence of a sense of industry versus inferiority during the middle childhood years. If children begin to think of ability as more entity-like during these years then the consequences of learning difficulties for developing a sense of industry increase. Evidence from a few studies (see Dweck, 1999) suggests that this is exactly what happens to children growing up in the United States. Furthermore, evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that the developmental increase in entity beliefs is due in part to an increased emphasis by the adults (both teachers and coaches) on social comparative evaluative feedback and stress on doing better than others rather than improving one's own competence over time (see Dweck, 1999 Eccles, Midgley & Adler, 1984 Midgley, 2002)
The signs and symptoms of anxiety and distress as described above can be helpful in the assessment of pain in situations where there is an inability to indicate the presence of pain verbally, as with the very young infant, or perhaps the very elderly, or those with learning disabilities.
Late changes present from several months to several years after radiation and may also develop following radiation to neighboring extracranial malignancies. They may progress and produce a mass effect that clinically and radiologically mimics tumor recurrence. In adults, the encephalopathy presents with cognitive decline and focal neurologic deficits. In children, late sequelae are learning difficulties, subnormal IQ, endocrine dysfunction, and vascular insults.
As shown in Figure 11.9, people also may construct discriminative stimuli through written words or spoken sounds. For example, a person may make a shopping list before going to the supermarket. Making a list is precurrent behavior, and the list is a discriminative stimulus for choosing groceries. Similarly, economical shoppers may say to themselves, Only buy products that are on sale. This verbal stimulus acts something like the grocery list in the previous example. As a rule, the verbal expression points to the relation between the stimuli, behavior, and reinforcement in the marketplace (see Taylor & O'Reilly, 1997, for use of self-instruction in shopping by people with mild learning disabilities). The words on sale identify a property of products that is correlated with saving money (reinforcement). The rule makes it easier to discriminate a good deal from a bad one, is easily recalled, and may be executed in any relevant situation.
Developmental dyslexia is an isolated disturbance of reading and writing in someone of normal intelligence and adequate schooling, with no accompanying deficits (whether sensory, motor, or psychological). Developmental dyslexia has been attributed to a disorder of language processing, which is often characterized by an impairment of the conversion of alphabetical characters into the phonetic elements of language, and by a deficit in phonological awareness. In addition, there are indications of deficits in the magnocellular auditory and visual pathways, resulting in poor processing of rapidly flowing sequences of stimuli. The responsibility of the ophthalmologist is to rule out a primary ocular source of the reading problem, to treat any associated disorders, such as refractive anomalies (particularly high hyperopia and high corneal astigmatism) and strabismus (which is itself never a cause of developmental dyslexia), and to lay the foundation for a complete diagnostic study of...
The prognosis of ischemic stroke among young subjects is favorable, and mortality is low. Recovery ranges from complete to partial, with variable motor deficits, movement disorder, seizures and, in children, learning difficulties and mental retardation. Prognosis of intrace-rebral hemorrhage is less favorable, and mortality in sub-arachnoid hemorrhage is high, possibly reaching 40 .
A general medical history should be taken, with inquiry made about significant illness and any prescribed medication. The detainee should be asked whether he or she has suffered from psychiatric illness, past or present, and specific inquiry should be made about alcohol and drug misuse. There should be questions about the person's educational background, because individuals with learning difficulties can be tough to recognize and inquiring about schooling may aid identification.
All information and advice should be presented and delivered by both written and verbal means. If designing written information, the editing suggestions from Cox14 and Pocinki15 may prove useful. It is necessary to ensure that any written information provided is user-friendly to the overall patient population. Provisions (video-or audio-tapes) for patients with learning difficulties, for example visual hearing difficulties, must be made.
Treating the young people in groups provides useful developmental information. In the group setting, opportunities to observe the adolescents and their parents in normal social situations rather than in the shorter intense therapeutic relationship occur. This allows the team to identify other developmental issues that may make change more difficult for certain children. An example is the observation of poor social skills or awkward peer interactions. If this is occurring in the therapeutic group, then it will also be happening at school and will need to be addressed if the young person is to return successfully to education. Specific learning difficulties that may interfere with the management of pain can also be observed during the therapeutic tasks, for example, poor sequencing and problem solving or writing difficulties that may suggest dyslexia or dyspraxia, to name but a few.
Conservative starting doses are also recommended in the elderly and for patients with learning disabilities who may require antipsychotics for psychosis or severe behavioural disturbance. The dose can be titrated up at intervals, until the desired effect in treating psychotic symptoms, calming disturbed behaviour or effecting sedation is achieved. The interval depends on the context, with the urgency of the situation and previous use of antipsychotics being factors which would accelerate the upward titration. An important issue is that the longer a psychosis is left untreated the less favourable is the outcome thus drug treatment should be instigated as soon as an adequate period of assessment has allowed a provisional diagnosis to be established.
Epilepsy is a common co-morbid illness in patients who have both psychiatric illness and learning disabilities. The necessary combination of the anti-epilepsy drug carbamazepine, a CYP 3A4 enzyme inducer, with a CYP 3A4 inhibiting SSRI antidepressant then calls for particularly careful increment in drug doses supported by monitoring of plasma carbamazepine concentration.