References

Al-Ubaidi MR, White TW, Ripps H, Poras I, Avner P, Gomes D, Bruzzone R (2000) Functional properties, developmental regulation, and chromosomal localization of murine connexin36, a gap-junctional protein expressed preferentially in retina and brain. J Neurosci Res 59 813-826 Altevogt BM, Paul DL (2004) Four classes of intercellular channels between glial cells in the CNS. J Neurosci 24 4313-4323 Altevogt BM, Kleopa KA, Postma FR, Scherer SS, Paul DL (2002) Connexin29 is uniquely distributed...

Keeping Control CNS Immune Surveillance

The most-prominent element involved in the CNS immune privilege is the blood-brain barrier, an anatomical barrier that consists of a tight endothe- lial layer, a basement membrane, and a network of astrocyte foot processes, which keeps immune cells out of the brain. The blood-brain barrier is not an absolute barrier proinflammatory cytokins such as IL-1 can induce expression of adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell surface, facilitate binding of immune cells and induce signals that open...

Maintaining the Balance The Brain Endocannabinoid System

Endocannabinoid Vascular Action Diagram

The CNS endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands and enzymes for the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids (Fig. 1). It is well known to participate crucially in neuronal cell-cell-communication and signal transduction, to control synaptic input, and to protect neurons from excitotoxic damage. The medical use of Cannabis in Europe dates back to the 19th century (O'Shaugnessy 1843, Moreau 1845), when Napoleon's Commission des Sciences et des...

Gap Junctions in Neurons Electrical Synapses

Inferior Olive Gap Junctions

Of all connexins expressed in cells of the nervous system, only few can be assigned to neurons - and for some others, their cellular correlate is still of debate. At least ten of the mammalian connexins are abundant in the cen tral nervous system, however, there seems to be a prevailing separation of neuronal and glial connexins. Hardly any of the glial connexins described above are expressed in mature neuronal cells Rash et al. 2001a,b Odermatt et al. 2003 , although some might be present in...

Molecular Organization of the Active Zone

Active Zone Bassoon

Several CAZ-specific constituents have been identified and characterized at the molecular level, including the UNC13 Munc13 proteins, the Rab3-interacting molecules RIMs , Bassoon, Piccolo Aczonin and the ERC2 CAST Garner et al. 2000 Rosenmund et al. 2003 Ziv and Garner 2004 . These proteins are physically interconnected and thus thought to form the molecular Fig. 1 Molecular organization of the CAZ. The CAZ-specific proteins RIMs, Munc13s, Bassoon, Piccolo and CAST ERC are thought to localize...

T Cell Activation in the Lymph Node A Marketplace Analogy

Lymph Node Cells Cells

In order to get activated, T cells needs to find APC with the correct peptide-MHC complexes on their surface. However, there exists an intrinsic information problem. A T cell does not have any knowledge of whether the antigen for which its TCR is specific has been taken up somewhere in the body. Nor does a DC know which T cell is specific for the pathogen that it just had phagocy-tosed, and whose processed peptide antigens are now presented on its MHC molecules. Likewise, a B cell cannot tell...