Amphetamine is usually found as a white powder, amphetamine sulphate, and can be taken nasally, orally, or intravenously. Clinical effects are similar to those of cocaine (Table 12), although amphetamine has a longer half-life of 10-15 h, so the duration of euphoria is longer. "Ice" is a pure form of metham-phetamine hydrochloride (98-100% pure), which is usually smoked like crack cocaine.

Tolerance occurs with long-term use. "Speed runs" describe repeated use over a period of days, with several grams of amphetamine used daily. At the end of the "run," the user may sleep for several days. Alcohol, sedative-hypnotic drugs, and heroin may be used to reduce the anxiety caused by amphetamine or, alternatively, amphetamine may be used to reduce the sedative effects of such drugs. Psychological dependence occurs, and psychosis may occur, which resolves when the drug is stopped. However, it is possible that amphetamine use may trigger latent schizophrenia.

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