Failure to Provide a Urine Sample

If a woman is requested to provide a urine sample, it is important to have a female officer present because it has been held that because of the embarrassment that it could involve, the refusal to supply a sample of urine could be regarded as a reasonable excuse (58). However, any embarrassment at having to urinate in front of an officer of the same sex is not regarded as a reasonable excuse for not having supplied a specimen. Similar statutes apply in the United States. Methadone and other opiates have an effect on the bladder sphincter and can thus cause delayed bladder emptying; this effect could be considered a reasonable excuse for failing to provide a urine sample (59). In Sweden, Jones (56) reported the top 10 defense challenges for driving under the influence of alcohol (Table 2). This situation may be subject to some change, because medications, such as tolterodine (Detrusitol) and other muscarinic receptor antagonists, are being increasingly prescribed for treatment of patients with symptoms of an unstable bladder. This may explain why California has already dropped urine from its list of testing options.

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