Medical Evidence

On average, 40% of complainants of sexual assaults will have no general injuries (37-41). Of those who are injured, most will have only minor injuries, which will fade rapidly or heal without a trace (37,38). Nonetheless, the whole body must be thoroughly inspected for stains (e.g., dirt and blood), injuries (including signs of substance use), skin disease, and scars (including self-inflicted injuries). All injuries must be described using the recognized nomenclature described in Chapter 4 and recorded in terms of site (measured, if possible, from a fixed bony point), two-dimensional size, covering surface (e.g., scabbing, bleeding, or swelling), and color. The body surfaces should then be palpated and a note made of the site and approximate size of any tender areas. More credence will be given to a finding of tenderness if it is verified later in the consultation (ideally while the patient is distracted) or at a follow-up assessment, particularly if a bruise becomes apparent. All negative observations should also be recorded.

If the person can identify an injury that he or she believes was caused by a true bite, as opposed to a suction or "love-bite," or if the examination reveals an injury that has features that are suggestive of a bite, arrangements must be made for the area to be professionally photographed so that the injury can be considered by a forensic odontologist. Several studies have reported that the female breasts are bitten in 7-19% of sexual offenses (42,43).

Preprinted body diagrams are useful for recording injuries. Although the original diagram is part of the forensic practitioner's contemporaneous record, copies may be appended to the statement or to the forms sent to the forensic scientist. The latter may use the diagrams to direct the forensic assessment (e.g., if the patient was bitten, the scientist will refer to the diagram to determine where to commence the search for saliva on any clothing that may have been contaminated concurrently).

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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