Other drugs may be used by body builders (93), including tamoxifen to reduce or prevent gynecomastia; diuretics to counteract the fluid retention caused by anabolic steroids; thyroxine to increase the rate of metabolism, which might theoretically increase the ability of anabolic steroids to boost physical strength (94); and P human chorionic gonadotrophin to alleviate testicular atrophy (95). Nalbuphine (Nubain) is an opioid agonist/antagonist analgesic used for the treat ment of moderate-to-severe pain, and dependence has been reported associated with anabolic steroid use (96).
Furthermore, there has been a case report of a 21-year-old body builder who was admitted after taking excessive amounts of insulin intravenously; apparently, insulin is advertised in body-building magazines as having anabolic properties (97). The recreational use of caffeine to toxic levels has been reported in a body builder who presented with a grand mal seizure (98). Clenbuterol, which is a sympathomimetic agonist (used as a oral bronchodila-tor in some European countries but not licensed for human use in the United Kingdom or United States) is said to have an "anabolic-like" effect but at high dose may cause cardiac dysrhythmias, tremor, and serious hypokalemia (99).
Was this article helpful?
Alcoholism is something that can't be formed in easy terms. Alcoholism as a whole refers to the circumstance whereby there's an obsession in man to keep ingesting beverages with alcohol content which is injurious to health. The circumstance of alcoholism doesn't let the person addicted have any command over ingestion despite being cognizant of the damaging consequences ensuing from it.