Pathogens Involved

1. Bacteria

• Dog bites—Pasteurella canis, Pasteurella multocida, S. aureus, other staphylococci, Streptococcus species, Eikenella corrodens, Corynebacterium species, and anerobes, including Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium tetani

• Human bites—Streptococcus species, S. aureus, E. corrodens, and anerobes, including bacteroides (often penicillin resistant), Peptostreptococci species, and C. tetani. Tuberculosis (TB) and syphilis may also be transmitted.

2. Viruses

• Dog bites—outside of the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand, rabies should be considered. In the United States, domestic dogs are mostly vaccinated against rabies (57), and police dogs have to be vaccinated, so the most common source is from racoons, skunks, and bats.

• Human bites—HBV, HBC, HIV, and herpes simplex.

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