Prophylaxis and Treatment

Contacts of HAV should receive HAV vaccine (e.g., Havrix Monodose or Avaxim) if they have not been previously immunized or had disease. Human normal immunoglobulin (HNIG), 500 mg, deep intramuscular in gluteal muscle should be used in the following circumstances:

Table 9

Tropical Diseases That Present With Fever

Table 9

Tropical Diseases That Present With Fever

Disease

Countries

Incubation

Transmission

Management

Dengue

Most hot climates

No person-to-person in UK

Symptomatic

Hantavirus

Eastern Europe

2 days-8 weeks

No person-to-person in UK

Symptomatic

Lassa Fever

West Africa

Hospital

Malaria

Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, South America

7 days-1 years

Mosquito

No person-to-person in UK. Requires urgent treatment. Hospital.

Typhoid

Hot climates

Up to 72 hours

Oral-fecal

Requires antibiotics.

Yellow Fever

Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of South America

3-6 days No person-to-person in UK

Mosquito

Hospital

UK, United Kingdom.

UK, United Kingdom.

Table 10

Tropical Diseases That Present With Diarrhea

Table 10

Tropical Diseases That Present With Diarrhea

Disease

Incubation

Infectivity

Transmission

Management

Amoebic dysentery

Days to months

1 Year

Oral-

-fecal

Requires antibiotics

Cholera

Hours-5 days

3-5 days after recovery

Oral-

-fecal; vomit.

Requires antibiotics

Giardia

3-25 days

Months

Oral-

-fecal

Treat with tinidazole

Malaria

7 days -1 years

None

No person-to-person

Urgent treatment. Hospital.

Typhoid

Up to 72 hours

Days to weeks

Oral-

-fecal

Requires antibiotics

• The contact is older than 50 years.

• Has cirrhosis or pre-existing HBV, HBC, or HDV.

• Contact has occurred more than 8 d but less than 28 days from exposure.

Staff at higher risk of coming in to contact with HAV should consider being vaccinated before exposure. Two doses of vaccine given 6-12 months apart give at least 10 years of protection.

There is no specific treatment for HAV, except supportive measures and symptomatic treatment.

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