1. UK Health Guidelines. Guidance for Clinical Health Care Workers: Protection Against Infection with Blood-borne Viruses; Recommendations of the Expert Advisory Group on AIDS and the Advisory Group on Hepatitis. [HSC 1998/063], NHS Executive, London, UK, 1998.

2. Guidelines for Hand Hygiene in Health Care Settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/ SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. MMWR Mob. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:1-44, 2002.

3. National Model Regulations for the Control of Workplace Hazardous Substances. Commonwealth of Australia, National Occupational Health and Safety Committee. [N0HSC:1005], 1994.

4. Nicholson F. Chapter 4: Infectious diseases and an at risk exposure. In: Stark M. M., Rogers, D.J., Norfolk, G. A. eds., Good Practice Guidelines for Forensic Medical Examiners, 2nd Ed. Metropolitan Police. GPG Editors, Oxford, UK, 2004.

5. Bolyard, E, A., Tablan, O. C., Williams, W. W., Pearson, M. L., Shapiro, C. N., Deitchman, S. D., and the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline for infection control in health care personnel. Am. J. Infect. Control. 26:289-354, 1998.

6. Prevalence of HIV and hepatitis infections in the United Kingdom 2000. Annual report of the Unlinked Anonymous Prevalence Monitoring Programme. Report from the Unlinked Anonymous Surveys Steering Group. Department of Health, London, UK, 2001.

7. A Strategy for Infectious Diseases-Progress Report. Blood-borne and sexually transmitted viruses: hepatitis. Department of Health, London, UK, 2002.

8. Perspectives in disease prevention and health promotion update. Universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immuno-deficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and other bloodborne pathogens in health-care settings. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 37:377-388, 1988.

9. Martinson, F. E., Weigle, K.A., Royce, R. A., Weber, D. J., Suchindran, C. M., Lemon, S. M. Risk factors for horizontal transmission of hepatitis B in a rural district in Ghana. Am. J. Epidemiol. 147:478-487, 1998.

10. Verma, G., Dalai, P., Bapat, M., Rathi, P., Abraham, P. Familial clustering of hepatitis B infection: study of a family. Indian J. Gastroenterol. 22:22-23, 2003.

11. Erol, S., Ozkurt, Z., Ertek, M., Tasyaran, M. A. Intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis B in the Eastern Anatolian region of Turkey. Euro. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 15: 345-349, 2003.

12. Hutchinson, S., Goldberg, D., Gore, S. et al. Hepatitis B outbreak at Glenochil prison during January to June 1993. Epidemiol. Infect. 121:185-191,1998.

13. European Network for HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis Prevention in Prisons. Second annual report. The Network, Bonn and Marseille, May 1998.

14. Weild, A. R., Gill, O. N., Bennett, D., Livingstone, S. J. M., Parry, J. V., Curran, L. Prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C antibodies in prisoners in England and Wales; a national survey. Communicable Dis. Public Health. 3:121126, 2000.

15. Alter, M. J. The epidemiology of acute and chronic hepatitis C. Clin. Liver Dis. 1: 559-562, 1997.

16. Frank, C., Mohamed, M. K., Strickland, G. T. The role of the parenteral antischistosomal therapy in the spread of hepatitis C virus in Egypt. Lancet. 355:887891, 2000.

17. Chronic Hepatitis C: Disease Management. NIH publication No. 03-4230. February 2003.

18. Hepatitis C strategy for England. Department of Health, London, UK, August 14, 2002.

19. Gish, R. G., Lau, J. Y. N. Hepatitis C virus: eight years old. Viral Hepatitis Rev. 3:17-37, 1997.

20. Ramsay, M. E., Balogun, M. A., Collins, M., Balraj, V. Laboratory surveillance of hepatitis C virus in England and Wales: 1992-1996. Communicable Dis. Public Health. 1:89-94, 1998.

21. Hepatitis D. Sean Lacey, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University. http://[email protected] Accessed Feb. 2004. Last update September 6, 2001.

22. Cumulative UK Data to end of December 2002. AIDS/HIV quarterly surveillance tables provided by the PHLS AIDS centre (CDSC) and the Scottish centre for Infection and Environmental Health. No 57: 02/4. February 2003.

23. HIV and AIDS in the UK in 2001. Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. An update. November 2002.

24. International Perinatal HIV Group. Mode of vertical transmission of HIV-1. A metanalysis of fifteen prospective cohort studies. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:977-987, 1999.

25. Duong, T., Ades, A., Gibbs, D. M., et al. Vertical transmission rate for HIV in the British Isles estimated on Surveillance data. Br. Med. J. 319:1227-1229, 1999.

26. Limb, S., Kawar, M., Forster, G. E. HIV post-exposure prophylaxis after sexual assault: the experience of a sexual assault service in London. Int. J. STDS AIDS. 13:602-605, 2002.

27. HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis: Guidance from the UK Chief Medical Officer's Expert Advisory Group on AIDS. UK Health Department, London, UK, 2000.

28. Jochimsen, E. M. Failures of zidovudine post exposure prophylaxis. Am. J. Med. 102:52-55, 1997.

29. Hawkins, D. A., Asboe, D., Barlow, K., Evans, B. Seroconversion to HIV-1 following a needlestick injury despite combination post-exposure prophylaxis. J. Infect. 43:12-15, 2001.

30. Salisbury, D. M., Begg, N. T. Department of Health, Immunisation Against Infectious Disease. United Kingdom: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, UK, 1996.

31. Sinha, D. P. Chickenpox—disease predominantly affecting adults in rural West Bengal, India. Int. J. Epidemiol. 5:367-374, 1996.

32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 45:1-36, 1996.

33. Fairley, C. K., Miller, E. Varicella-zoster virus epidemiology. A changing scene? J. Infect. Dis. 174 (Suppl 3):314-319, 1996.

34. Smego, R. A., Asperilla, M. O. Use of Acyclovir for varicella pneumonia during pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 78:1112-1116, 1991.

35. Pastuszak, A. L., Levy, M., Schick, B., et al. Outcome after maternal varicella infection in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. N. Engl. J. Med. 330:901-905, 1994.

36. Miller, E., Cradoc-Watson, J. E., Ridehalgh, M. K. Outcome in newborn babies given anti-varicella zoster immunoglobulin after perinatal maternal infection with varicella zoster virus. Lancet. 2:371-373, 1989.

37. Gilden, D. H., Vafai, A., Shtram, Y., et al. Varicella-zoster virus DNA in human sensory ganglia. Nature. 306:478-80, 1983.

38. Dworkin, R. H., Schmader, K. E. Epidemiology and natural history of herpes zoster and post herpetic neuralgia. In: Watson, C. P. N., Gershon, A. A., eds., Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia. 2nd Ed. Elsevier Press, New York, NY, 2001, pp. 39-64.

39. Desmond, R. A., Weiss, H. L., Arani, R. B., et al. Clinical applications for change-point analysis of herpes zoster pain. J. Pain Sys. Manage. 23:510-516, 2002.

40. Gnann, J. W. Jr., Whitley, R. J. Herpes Zoster. N. Engl. J. Med. 347:340-346, 2002.

41. Haustein, U. F., Hlawa, B. Treatment of scabies with permethrin versus lindane and benzoyl benzoate. Acta Derm. Venereol. (Stock). 69:348-351, 1989.

42. Brown, S., Becher, J., Brady, W. Treatment of ectoparasitic infections; review of the English-language literature. 1982-1992. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20 (Suppl 1):S104-S109, 1995.

43. Klutymans, J., Van Belkum, A., Verbrugh, H. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology and control measures. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 3:901913, 1989.

44. Lowry, F. D. Staphylococcus aureus infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 339:520-532, 1998.

45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections—Michigan. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 30:185-187, 1981.

46. Saravolatz, L. D., Markowitz, N., Arking, L., Pohlod, D., Fisher, E. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Epidmiologic observations during a community acquired outbreak. Ann. Intern. Med. 96:11-16, 1982.

47. Health Protection Agency. Emergence of PVL-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Commun. Dis. Rep. CDR Wkly. [serial online]. 13: 2003. Available at Website: ( Accessed in Jan. 2004.

48. Summanen, P. H., Talan, D. A., Strong, C., et al. Bacteriology of skin and soft tissue infections: comparison of infections in intravenous drug users and individuals with no history of intravenous drug use. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20(Suppl 2):S279-S282, 1995.

49. Bohlen, L. M., Muhlemann, K., Dubuis, O., Aebi, C., Tauber, M. G. Outbreak among drug users caused by a clonal strain of group a streptococcus. Dispatches— emerging infectious diseases. Available at Website: ( Accessed March 2003.

50. Lettington, W. Bacteriological skin and subcutaneous infections in injecting drug users—relevance for custody. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 9:65-69, 2002.

51. Passaro, D. J., Werner, S. B., McGee, J., MacKenzie, W. R., Vugia, D. J. Wound botulism associated with black tar heroin among injecting drug users. JAMA. 279, 859-63, 1998.

52. Brazier, J.S., Duerden, B. I., Hall, V., et al. Isolation and identification of clostridium spp from infections associated with injection of drugs: experiences of a microbiological investigation team. J. Med. Microbiol. 51:985-989, 2002.

53. Greater Glasgow Health Board, SCIFH. Unexplained illness among drug injectors in Glasgow. Eurosurveillance 4: 500518, August 6, 2001.

54. Kuylaylat, M. N., Barakat, N., Stephan, R. N., Gutierrez, I. Embolization of illicit needle fragments. J. Emerg. Med. 11:403-408, 1993.

55. Ngaage, D. L., Cowen, M. E. Right ventricular needle embolus in an injecting drug user: the need for early removal. Emerg. Med. J. 18:500-501, 2001.

56. Spanierman, C. Departments of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, Lutheran General Hospital of Oak Brook, Advocate Health System. eMedicine-Human Bites, Available at Website: ( Accessed in Feb 2004.

57. Presutti, J. P. Prevention and treatment of dog bites. Am. Fam. Physician. 63:15671572, 2001.

58. Revis, D. R., Jr., Seagel, M. B. Human bites. Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine. eMedicine-Human Bites. Available at Website: ( Accessed in Feb 2004.

59. Guidelines for public health management of meningococcal diseases in the UK. Communicable Disease and Public Health. PHLS. 5:187-204, 2002.

60. Miller, E., Salisbury, D., Ramsay, M. Planning, registration and implementation of an immunisation campaign against meningococcal serogroup C disease in the UK: a success story. Vaccine. 20 (Suppl 1):S58-S67, 2001.

61. Ramsay, M., Andrews, N., Kaczmarski, E., Miller, E. Efficacy of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in teenagers and toddlers in England. Lancet. 357:195-196, 2001.

62. PHLS. Quadrivalent meningoimmunisation required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Commun. Dis. Rep. CDR Wkly. 11:8/11/2001. Accessed on May 11, 2004.

63. Boutet, R., Stuart, J. M., Kaczmarski, E., Gray, S. J., Jones, M., Andrews, N. Risk of laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease. J. Hosp. Infect. 49:282-284, 2001.

64. Orr, H., Kaczmarski, E., Sarangi, J., Pankhania, B., Stuart, J. Cluster of meningococcal disease in rugby match spectators. Commun. Dis. Public Health. 4:316-317, 2001.

65. Salisbury, D. M., Begg, N. T. Immunisation against Infectious Disease. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, UK, 1996.

66. CDSC. Ciprofloxacin as a chemoprophylactic agent for meningococcal disease— low risk of anaphylactoid reactions. Commun. Dis. Rep. Wkly. 11:2001.

67. Joint Formulary Committee 2002-03. British National Formulary. British Medical Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, London, UK, 2003.

68. Omerod, L. P., Watson, J. M., Pozniak, A., et al. Notification of tuberculosis an updated code of practice for England and Wales. J. Royal Coll. Phys. Lond. 31:299303, 1997.

69. Statutory notifications to the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. Preliminary annual report on tuberculosis cases reported in England, Wales, and N. Ireland. Accessed in Dec. 2003.

70. The Interdepartmental Working Group on Tuberculosis. The prevention and control of tuberculosis in the United Kingdom: UK guidance on the prevention and control of transmission of 1. HIV-related tuberculosis 2. Drug-resistant, including multiple drug-resistant, tuberculosis. Department of Health, Scottish Office, The Welsh Office, Scotland, 1998.

71. Joint Tuberculosis Committee of the British Thoracic Society. Control and prevention of tuberculosis in the United Kingdom: Code of Practice 2000. Thorax. 55:887901, 2000.

72. Cantwell, M. F., Snider, D. E., Cauthen, G. M., Onorato, I. M. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in the United States, 1985 through 1992. JAMA. 272:535-539, 1994.

73. Centers for Disease Control. Nosocomial transmission of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis among HIV-infected persons—Florida, New York, 1988-1991. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 40:585-591, 1991.

74. Navin, T. R., McNabb, S. J. N., Crawford, J. T. The Continued Threat of Tuberculosis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. [serial online]. Available at Website:( ncidod/EID/vol8no11/02-0468). Accessed November 2002.

75. Sepkowitz, D. V. Chapter 5: Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Individuals. In: Lutwick, Larry I., ed., Tuberculosis—A Clinical Handbook. Chapman & Hall Medical, London, UK, 1995.

76. Murray, J. F. The White Plague: down and out, or up and coming? Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 140:1788-1795.

77. Selwyn, P. A., Hartel, D., Lewis, V. A., et al. A prospective study of the risk of tuberculosis among intravenous drug users with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 320:545-550, 1989.

78. Wallis, R. S., Vjecha, M., Amir-Tahmasseb, M., et al. Influence of tuberculosis on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1): enhanced cytokine expression and elevated B2-microglobulin in HIV-1 associated tuberculosis. J. Infect. Dis. 167:4348, 1993.

79. Long, R., Maycher, B., Scalcini, M., Manfreda, J. The chest roenterogram in pulmonary tuberculosis patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Chest. 99:123-127, 1991.

80. Peiris, J. S. M., Lais, T., Poon, L. L. M., et al. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet. 361:1319-1325, 2003.

81. Donnelly, C. A., Ghani, A. C., Leung, G. M., et al. Epidemiological determinants of spread of causal agents of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. Lancet. 361:761-766, 2003.

82. Alert, verification and public health management of SARS in post-outbreak period. World Health Organization. Available at Website: ( postoutbreak/en/). Accessed 14, 2003.

83. Gay, N. J., Morgan-Capner, P., Wright, J., Farrington, C. P., Miller, E. Age-specific antibody prevalence to hepatitis A in England: implications for disease control. Epidemiol. Infect. 113:113-120, 1994.

84. Crowcroft, N. S., Walsh, B., Davison, K. L., Gungabissoon, U., PHLS Advisory Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation. Guidelines for the control of hepatitis A infection. Commun. Dis. Public Health. 4:213-227, 2001.

85. Irwin, D. J., Millership, S. Control of a community hepatitis A outbreak using hepatitis A vaccine. Commun. Dis. Public Health. 2:184-187, 1999.

86. Katz, M. H., Hsu, L., Wong, E., Liska, S., Anderson, L., Janssen, R. S. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis A infection among young homosexual and bisexual men. J. Infect. Dis. 175:1225-1229, 1997.

87. Harkess, J., Gildon, B., Istre, G. R. Outbreaks of hepatitis A among illicit drug users, Oklahoma, 1984-1987. Am. J. Public Health. 79:463-466, 1989.

88. Hutin, Y. J., Bell, B. P., Marshall, K. L., et al. Identifying target groups for a potential vaccination program during a hepatitis A community outbreak. Am. J. Public Health. 89:918-19, 1999.

89. Hutin, Y. J., Sabin, K. M., Hutwagner, L. C., et al. Multiple modes of hepatitis A transmission among metamphetamine users. Am. J. Epidemiol. 152:186-192, 2000.

90. Ochnio, J. J., Patrick, D., Hom, T. G., et al. Past infection with hepatitis A among Vancouver Street youth, injection drug users and men who have sex with men; implications for vaccination programmes. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 165:293-297, 2001.

Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Alcoholism is something that can't be formed in easy terms. Alcoholism as a whole refers to the circumstance whereby there's an obsession in man to keep ingesting beverages with alcohol content which is injurious to health. The circumstance of alcoholism doesn't let the person addicted have any command over ingestion despite being cognizant of the damaging consequences ensuing from it.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment