1. Finucane, A. K. Legal aspects of epilepsy. Neurol. Clin. 17:235-243, 1999.

2. Fitten, L. J. The demented driver: the doctor's dilemma. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord. 11 (Suppl 1):57-61, 1997.

3. Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency. For Medical Practitioners: At a Glance Guide to the Current Medical Standards of Fitness to Drive. Drivers Medical Unit. DVLA, Swansea, Wales, 2003.

4. Austroads Assessing Fitness to Drive: Austroads Guidelines for Health Professionals and Their Legal Obligations. Austroads, Sydney, 1998.

5. Osawa, M., Nagasawa, T., Yukawa, N., et al. Sudden natural death in driving: case studies in the western area of Kanagawa. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi. 52:315-318, 1998.

6. Cheng, L. H., Whittington, R. M. Natural deaths while driving: would screening for risk be ethically justified? J. Med. Ethics. 24:248-251, 1998.

7. Belkic, K., Emdad, R., Theorell, T. Occupational profile and cardiac risk: possible mechanisms and implications for professional drivers. Int. J. Occup. Med. Environ. Health. 11:37-57, 1998.

8. Conti, J. B., Woodard, D. A., Tucker, K. J., Bryant, B., King, L. C., Curtis, A. B. Modification of patient driving behavior after implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator. Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol. 20(9 Pt. 1):2200-2204, 1997.

9. Medical Research Council Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal Study Group. Prognostic index for recurrence of seizures after remission of epilepsy. Br. Med. J. 306:13741378, 1993.

10. Krumholz, A. Driving and epilepsy: a historical perspective and review of current regulations. Epilepsia. 35:668-674, 1994.

11. MacLeod, K. M. Diabetes and driving: towards equitable, evidence-based decisionmaking. Diabetes Med. 16:282-290, 1999.

12. Ehrlich, E. N. Diabetes and the license to drive. Wis. Med. J. 90:115-118, 1991.

13. Distiller, L. A., Kramer, B. D. Driving and diabetics on insulin therapy. S. Afr. Med. J. 86 (Suppl 8):1018-1020, 1996.

14. Charman, W. N. Vision and driving-a literature review and commentary. Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 17:371-391, 1997.

15. General Medical Council. Duties of a Doctor-Confidentiality. Guidance from the General Medical Council. GMC, London, UK, 1995.

16. Ellenhorn, M. J., Schonwald, S., Ordog, G., Wasserberger, J. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 1997.

17. Jones, A., Pounder, D. Measuring blood-alcohol concentration for clinical and forensic purposes. In: Karch, S., ed., Drug Abuse Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 327-356, 1998.

18. Noordzij, P. C., Roszbach, R. Alcohol, drugs, and traffic safety. In: T86: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety, Amsterdam, September 9-12, 1986. Excerpta Medica, New York, NY, 1987.

19. Borkenstein, R. F., Dale, A. The role of the drinking driver in traffic accidents. Department of Police Administration, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 1964.

20. Allsop, R. Alcohol and road accidents: a discussion of the Grand Rapids study: RRL 6. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, UK, 1996.

21. Compton, R.P., Blomberg, R.D., Moskowitz, H., Burns, M., Peck, R.C., Fiorentino, D. Crash Risk of Alcohol Impaired Driving in T2002 Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. Montreal, Canada, 2002.

22. California Code of Regulations. Title 13. Motor Vehicles and Traffic Regulations, CA, 1999.

23. Pounder, D., Jones, G. Measuring alcohol post-mortem. In: Karch, S., ed., Drug Abuse Handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 356-374, 1998.

24. Aberg, L. Utzelmann, H. D., Berghaus, G., eds. Behaviours and opinions of Swedish drivers before and after the 0.02% legal BAC limit of 1990, in T9. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety, Cologne, Germany, 1992.

25. Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions. Combating Drunk-Driving—Next Steps. A Consultation Document. DETR, UK, 1998.

26. Dunbar, J. A., Penttila, A., Pikkarainen, J. Drinking and driving: success of random breath testing in Finland. Br. Med. J. 295:101-103. 1987.

27. Marsden, A. Accidental injury and traffic medicine. In: McLay, W. D. S., ed., Clinical Forensic Medicine, Greenwich Medical Media, London, UK, p. 231, 1996.

28. Coben, J. H., Larkin, G. L. Effectiveness of ignition interlock devices in reducing drunk driving recidivism. Am. J. Prev. Med. 16 (Suppl 1):81-87, 1999.

29. Sheldrake v Director of Public Prosecutions [2003] EWHC 273 (Admin).

32. Krause, K. R., Howells, G. A., Bair, H. A., Bendick, P. J., Glover, J. L. Prosecution and conviction of the injured intoxicated driver. J. Trauma. 45:1069-1073, 1998.

33. McArthur, D. L., Kraus, J. F. The specific deterrence of administrative per se laws in reducing drunk driving recidivism. Am. J. Prev. Med. 16 (Suppl 1):68-75, 1999.

34. Association of Police Surgeons/British Medical Association. Taking blood from incapacitated drivers. Guidance for doctors on the provisions of the Police Reform Act 2002. Available at Website: ( Accessed on October 2002.

35. Kaye, S., Cardona, E. Errors of converting a urine alcohol value into a blood alcohol level. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 52:577-584, 1969.

36. Winek, C. L., Esposito, F. M. Comparative study of ethanol levels in blood versus bone marrow, vitreous humor, bile and urine. Forensic Sci. Int. 17:27-36, 1981.

37. Carter, P. G., McConnell, A. A. Alcohol in drink driving swabs: does it make any difference? [letter]. Med. Sci. Law. 30:90, 1990.

38. Chief Constable of Avon and Somerset v Singh. R.T.R. 107. 1988.

39. D.P.P. v Kinnersley. The Times, December 29 D.C. 1992.

42. Gomm, P. J., Osselton, M. D., Broster, C. G., Johnson, N. M., Upton, K. Study into the ability of patients with impaired lung function to use breath alcohol testing devices. Med. Sci. Law. 31:221-225, 1991.

43. Gomm, P. J., Broster, C. G., Johnson, N. M., Hammond, K. Study into the ability of healthy people of small stature to satisfy the sampling requirements of breath alcohol testing instruments. Med. Sci. Law. 33:311-314, 1993.

44. Odell, M., McDonald, C., Farrar, J., Natsis, J. S., Pretto, J. F. Breath testing in patients with respiratory disability. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 5:45-48, 1998.

45. Honeybourne, D., Moore, A. J., Butterfield, A. K., Azzan, L. A study to investigate the ability of subjects with chronic lung diseases to provide evidential breath samples using the Lion Intoxilyzer ® 6000 UK breath alcohol testing device. Respiratory Med. 94:684-688, 2000.

46. Logan, B. K., Gullberg, R. G. Lack of effect of tongue piercing on an evidential breath alcohol test. J. Forensic Sci. 43:239-240, 1998.

47. Kuldip Singh Gill v D.P.P. January 16, 1995.

49. Bayliss v Thames Valley Police Chief Constable. R.T.R. 328, 1978.

51. Robinson, S. P. Road traffic offences. In Robinson, S. P., ed., Principles of Forensic Medicine, Greenwich Medical Media, London. Distributed worldwide by Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 139-147, 1996.

54. Stark, M.M., Brener, N. Needle Phobia. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 7:35-38, 2000.

55. Rix, K. Blood or needle phobia as a defence under the Road Traffic Act of 1988. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 3:173-177, 1996.

56. Jones, A. W. Top ten defence challenges among drinking drivers in Sweden. Med. Sci. Law. 31:229-238, 1991.

57. Jones, A., Logan, B. DUI defenses. In: Karch, S., ed., Drug Abuse Handbook , CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 1006-1046, 1998.

59. Acevedo, C. G., Tamayo, L., Contreras, E. Effects of morphine in the isolated mouse urinary bladder. Gen. Pharmacol. 17:449-452, 1986.

60. Davis, A. R., Lipson, A. H. Central nervous system tolerance to high blood alcohol levels. Med. J. Aust. 144:9-12, 1986.

61. Felby, S., Olsen, J. Comparative studies of postmortem ethyl alcohol in vitreous humor, blood, and muscle. J. Forensic Sci. 14:93-101, 1969.

62. Seppala, T., Linnoila, M., Mattila, M. J. Drugs, alcohol and driving. Drugs. 17:389408, 1979.

63. Mattila, M. J., Vanakoski, J., Kalska, H., Seppala, T. Effects of alcohol, Zolpidem and some other sedatives and hypnotics on human performance and memory. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 59:917-923, 1998.

64. Ramaekers, J. G. Behavioural toxicity of medicinal drugs. Practical consequences, incidence, management and avoidance. Drug Saf. 18:189-208, 1998.

65. Osselton, M. D., Owen, P., Fysh, R. Drugs and Driving, Forensic Science Service Report No. TN816. Forensic Science Service, London, UK, p. 3, 1996.

66. Tunbridge, R. J., Keigan, M., James, F. J. The Incidence of Drugs in Road Accident Fatalities. TRL report 495. TRL Ltd, Crowthorne, UK, 2001.

67. Everest J. T., Tunbridge, R. J., B.Widdop. The Incidence of Drugs in Road Accident Fatalities. TRL Report RR202. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, UK, 1989.

68. Berghaus, G., Scheer, N., Schmidt, P. Effects of cannabis on psychomotor skills and driving performance-a meta-analysis of experimental studies, in T95 Proceedings of the 13 th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety, Adelaide, 1994.

69. Chait, L., Pierri, J. Effects of smoked marijuana on human performance: a critical review. In: Murphy, L., Bartke, A., eds., Marijuana/Cannabinoids: Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1992.

70. Heishman, S., Karch, S. Drugs and driving. In: Siegel, J., Saukko, P., Knupfer, G., eds., Encyclopaedia of Forensic Sciences. Academic Press, London, UK, 2000.

71. Heishman, S. J., Singleton, E. G., Crouch, D. J. Laboratory validation study of drug evaluation and classification program: alprazolam, 5-amphetamine, codeine, and marijuana. J. Anal. Toxicol. 22:503-514, 1998.

72. Sexton, B.F., Tunbridge, R.J., Brook-Carter, N., et al. The influence of cannabis on driving. TRL Report 477. TRL Limited, Crowthorne, UK, 2000.

73. Friedel, B., Berghaus, S. Methadone and Driving. In: T95 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety, Adelaide, Australia, 1995.

74. Koelega, H. S. Stimulant drugs and vigilance performance: a review. Psychophar-macology. 111:1-16, 1993.

75. Farre, M., Llorente, M., Ugena, B., Lamas, X., Cami, J. Interaction of cocaine with ethanol. NIDA Res Monogr. 105:570-571, 1991.

76. Logan, B. K. Methamphetamine and driving impairment. J. Forensic Sci. 41:457464, 1996.

77. De Waard, D., Brookhuis, K. A., Pernot, L. M. C. A driving simulator study on the effects of MDMA (Ecstasy) on driving performance and traffic safety. In: T2000 Proceedings of the International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety, Stockholm, Sweden, May 26, 2000.

78. O'Hanlon, J. F., Vermeeren, A., Uiterwijk, M. M., van Veggel, L. M., Swijgman, H. F. Anxiolytics' effects on the actual driving performance of patients and healthy volunteers in a standardized test. An integration of three studies. Neuropsycho-biology. 31:81-88, 1995.

79. Barbone, F., McMahon, A. D., Davey, P. G., et al. Association of road-traffic accidents with benzodiazepine use [see comments]. Lancet. 352:1331-1336, 1998.

80. Bramness, J. G., Skurtveit, S., M0rland. J. Clinical Impairment of Benzodiaz-epines-Relation between Benzodiazepine Concentrations and Impairment in Apprehended Drivers. Pompidou Group, Strasbourg, France, 2003.

81. Chesher, G. B., Dauncey, H., Crawford, J., Horn, K. The Interaction Between Alcohol and Marijuana. Report to the Australian Federal Office of Road Safety. Department of Pharmacology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 1996.

82. Sexton, B. F., Tunbridge, R. J., Brook-Carter, N., et al. The influence of cannabis and alcohol on driving. TRL Report 543. TRL Limited, Crowthorne, UK, 2002.

83. Hindmarch, I. Psychiatry in practice. Winter:23-25, 1993.

84. O'Hanlon, J. F., Robbe, H. W., Vermeeren, A., van Leeuwen, C., and Danjou, P. E. Venlafaxine's effects on healthy volunteers' driving, psychomotor, and vigilance performance during 15-day fixed and incremental dosing regimens. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 18:212-221, 1998.

85. Bhatti, J. Z., Hindmarch, I. The effects of terfenadine with and without alcohol on an aspect of car driving performance. Clin. Exp. Allergy. 19:609-611, 1989.

86. Tunbridge, R. J., Keigan, M., James, F. J. Recognising drug use and drug related impairment in drivers at the roadside. TRL report 464. TRL Ltd, Crowthorne, UK, 2001.

87. Burns, M., Adler, E. Study of a Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) program, in T95. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs, Traffic Safety, Adelaide, Australia, 1995.

88. Kidwell, D. A., Holland, J. C., Athanaselis, S. Testing for drugs of abuse in saliva and sweat. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 713:111-135, 1998.

89. Tunbridge, R. J., Rowe, D. J. Roadside identification of drug impaired drivers in Great Britain. 10th International Conference on Road safety in Europe, Malmo, 1999.

90. O'Keefe, M. Drugs driving—standardized field sobriety tests: a survey of police surgeons in Strathclyde. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 8:57-65, 2001.

92. Stark, M. M., Tunbridge, R. J., Rowe, D., Fleming, D., Stewart, D. Drugs, driving and sobriety tests-a review of recent developments. J. Clin. Forensic Med. 9:126132, 2002.

93. Odell, M.S. Expert Opinion in DUID Cases Based on Interpretation and Observation and Toxicology in T2002. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety. Montreal, Canada, 2002.

Drug Addiction Report

Drug Addiction Report

You're going to discover so many things on addiction with little effort Not only will you discover the thrill of breaking free from your addiction, but you'll also learn extra bonus tips to actually help other people This new breakthrough book is a guide, really. A guide as a result of years of searching, studying, and scouring hundreds of websites, stores, and magazines.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment