Blood or blood-stained body fluids need to be involved for a risk to occur. Saliva alone is not deemed to be a risk. The risk from a single needlestick incident is 1.8% (range 0-7%). Contact through a contaminated cut is estimated at 1%. For penetrating bite injuries, there are no data, but it is only considered a risk if blood is involved. Blood or blood-stained body fluids have to be involved in transmission through mucous membrane exposure. This may account for the lower-than-expected prevalence among the gay population.
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