Seminal Fluid

If no spermatozoa are detected, an attempt is made to corroborate the allegation by the microscopic identification of seminal choline crystals. Seminal choline is present in high concentrations in seminal fluid, and the choline crystals can be precipitated by the addition of reagents (106). There are also electrophoretic techniques by which seminal fluid can be identified (107). If the assailant is a secretor, his semen, regardless of whether spermatozoa are present, will contain his ABO group antigens. However, serological analysis has been superseded by DNA STR analysis in many countries.

The FSS is currently researching the use of FISH technology to identify small amounts of male epithelial cells that subsequently can be isolated to enable STR DNA profiling to be conducted on the recovered material (108110). This will be useful where the offender is suspected to be oligospermic or aspermic or when only minimal amounts of male epithelial cells have been deposited; Y chromosome-positive cells have been isolated from vaginal swabs taken immediately after intercourse where no ejaculation had occurred.

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