Friendships Ebook

Making and Keeping Friends

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The Quality of Friendships Qualitative Data

Although research has examined the extent to which adolescents feel intimate or supported in their friendships, very little research has focused on how adolescents make meaning of or experience their friendships in the first place. There has been an implicit and explicit assumption in the friendship research that we already know how adolescents experience their friendships and thus should focus instead on the frequencies or intensity of these experiences. Yet descriptive research on how adolescents experience friendships is not only dated (Sullivan, 1954 Selman, 1980 Youniss & Smollar, 1985), it is also based primarily on White middle class adolescents. Furthermore, research has rarely explored how friendship experiences and meanings vary by age, gender, or race ethnicity (exceptions include Azmitia et al., 1998). Our longitudinal studies of ethnic minority, low-income adolescents are one of the only sets of studies that has explored the ways in which adolescents experience their...

Qualitative Understanding of Adolescent Friendships

As described in this chapter, implications from our own qualitative research (Way, 1998 Way & Pahl, 1999) suggest that longitudinal studies would also benefit from the inclusion of a qualitative component aimed at understanding the experiences of friendships themselves. Indeed, our qualitative findings indicate that what some presume to be the typical friendship patterns of adolescent boys (based primarily on survey research) inadequately represents the types of friendships that, at the very least, urban, ethnically diverse adolescent boys from low-income families actually experience or desire. We believe that such qualitative findings have significant implications for future studies of adolescents' friendships, and development more broadly. By relying exclusively on survey research for descriptions of adolescent processes, resulting theoretical predictions and explanations of such processes may be based on insufficient grounding. Taking into account participants' voices and...

Summary of Quality of Friendships Qualitative Data

Similar to what the research literature has suggested (Savin-Williams & Berndt, 1990), shared secrets were a critical part of the experience of closeness for the adolescents in our studies. Contrary to the existing literature on friendships, however, shared secrets or the desire to share secrets was just as important for boys as for girls. Perhaps among adolescents who come from more interdependent cultures (e.g., poor and working class, African American, Latino, and Asian American families), sharing the intimate details of one's life with close friends is more normative than among adolescents who come from more autonomy-focused cultures (e.g., European American, middle-class families). It is also possible that our findings are more a product of methodology than of sample demographics. The ways in which we conduct qualitative research entails creating a safe space for young people to share their thoughts and feelings and encouraging them to speak about what they find most...

When the Children Cannot Yet Talk About Friendships

We define an affective relationship as one that includes feelings of affection or what would be called love in adult-child relationships. Toddler affective relationships have attributes of friendship common to the 'best friendships' which provide older children with emotional security and closeness (Howes, 1996 Howes, with Unger et al., 1992). These early friendship relationships appear to be formed in a way similar to adult-child attachment relationships (Howes, 1996). In the following section, we will examine supports for these assumptions about early friendship formation. In a similar manner to the research on structural complexity of peer interaction, the friendship studies began with the collection of observational data. Since toddler-age children cannot report on their friendships, we must use behaviors to distinguish friendship relationships from playmate relationships in prelinguistic children. This results in some discontinuity in research about friendships because later...

The Functions of Friendships Between Very Young Children

Can peers provide other child experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy Do children who grew up together sharing the common resources of the child care center have a different kind of social interaction than acquaintances Do cross-sex peers and cross-ethnic peers who became friends in the context of child care form nontraditional relationships Each of these questions describes a potential function of friendship experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy a context for mastering social interaction and a context for engaging with children who are unlike the self. The first of these functions has received the most research attention research on the third function is just emerging. Friendships Provide Experiences of Social Support, Trust, and Intimacy We expect that older children or adolescents derive feelings of social support, trust, and intimacy from their relationships with friends (Howes, 1996). It is difficult to directly apply these constructs to the friendships of...

Summary of the Characteristics of Friendships

The research on characteristics of friends among ethnic minority youth reveals variation in the extent to which adolescents seek out cross-ethnic race friendships which is likely due to the context in which these friendships are embedded. The same factors that influence the quality of friendships (family relationships, school climate, and neighborhood climate) may also predict the extent to which, for example, adolescents seek out cross-ethnic race friendships. The characteristics of friendships also appear to vary by ethnicity race with European American youth reporting fewer neighborhood-based friendships than Black youth. These patterns are likely influenced by a multitude of factors including the mobility patterns of the people who live in the neighborhoods, the ethnic racial composition of the adolescents in the neighborhood of the school, and the extent to which adolescents from the neighborhood attend the neighborhood school. These findings regarding the characteristics of...

Friendship As Affective Relationships

Up until this point in this chapter we have been discussing how children construct social skills and peer group social structure. We have been (almost) acting as if all dyadic relationships within the peer group were interchangeable. That is that dyads are created at random and that every possible dyad in the classroom interacts in a similar manner. And this is, of course, not true. Even the earliest of studies of the construction of peer interaction among infants (Lee, 1973) noted that babies seemed to form early preferences. And sociometric inquiry rests on the premise of differential preferences within the peer group. But are early friendships affective relationships or merely preferences Friendships are relationships based on mutual support, affection, and companionship. School age children can articulate these qualities of friendship and tell an adult whether a friendship does or does not have these qualities. Infants and toddlers and even preschoolers do not have the verbal and...

Summary of Quality of Friendships Quantitative Data

Although gender differences are often detected in samples of European American and Latino adolescents, such gender differences are rarely indicated among African American (DuBois & Hirsch, 1990 Rosenbloom, 20042 Way & Chen, 2000) or Asian American youth (Way & Chen, 2000). One possible explanation for the lack of gender differences among African American youth may be that African American boys experience more supportive friendships than both European American or Latino boys and thus mean level differences in friendship support among African American boys and girls are not significant. This interpretation is corroborated by recent survey-based research showing that although African American and White girls report similar levels of friendship quality, African American boys report having more intimate close friendship than White and or Latino adolescent boys (DuBois & Hirsch, 1990 Jones et al., 1994). Figure 17.2 Fitted linear growth curves for closest same-sex friendship...

The Characteristics And Quality Of Adolescent Friendships

While few researchers have examined the contextual-level predictors of friendship quality among ethnic minority adolescents, there has been an increasing number of studies examining the characteristics (e.g., number of cross-ethnic racial friendships) and quality (e.g., level of support or intimacy) of friendships among ethnically diverse youth. This body of research has, for the most part, suggested that the characteristics and quality of friendships are influenced by race, ethnicity, gender and or social class (Cauce, 1986, 1987 DuBois & Hirsch, 1990 Hamm, 1994 Way, 1996, 1998). The Characteristics of Adolescent Friendships Research focused on the extent to which ethnic minority and majority youth have cross ethnic racial friendships has, for the most part, suggested that adolescents, including those who attend ethnically diverse schools, are less likely to befriend peers from other ethnic racial groups than they are peers from their own ethnic racial group (Brown, 1990 Hamm,...

The Quality of Friendships Quantitative Data Gender and Ethnic Differences

Research on the quality of adolescent friendships has typically been grounded in Weiss's (1974) contention that children and adolescents seek social provisions in their close friendships (Furman, 1996). Such provisions include intimacy (e.g., sharing secrets together), affection (e.g., showing affection toward one another), companionship (e.g., having fun together), and satisfaction (Shulman, 1993). A large body of research over the past decade has focused on understanding the prevalence and correlates of these dimensions of friendship quality (see Buhrmester, 1990 Bukowski, Newcomb, & Hartup, 1996 Collins & Laursen, 1992 Furman & Buhrmester, 1985), and the extent to which they vary by gender and, more recently, by ethnicity race. Studies have found that the quality of friendships do vary by gender and ethnicity race. Jones, et al. (1994), for example, explored friendship quality among Mexican American, African American, and European American sixth and ninth graders and found...

Adolescents Experience of Friendships

Relatedly, a second limitation to the friendship literature is a failure to consider adolescents' actual friendship experiences. This is surprising given the fact that the degree to which adolescents attach importance to various traits and behaviors will likely vary by the extent that they (1) are exposed to various norms and values in the larger society and (2) associate with peers who come from differing racial ethnic backgrounds (Aboud, 1987). Thus, although many researchers have argued that people tend to make distinct causal attributions for similar behaviors (Triandis, 1976 Triandis, Vassiliou, Vassiliou, Tanaka, & Shanmungan, 1972), the ever-increasing diversity of schools and other significant socializing contexts encountered by adolescents (e.g., neighborhood community) will likely impact adolescent experiences of friendships. This is especially true given that over the course of adolescence, friends increase significantly in importance (Blyth, Hill, & Thiel, 1982...

Agerelated Changes in Friendship Experiences

Additional longitudinal studies investigating how friendships change over time during adolescence and from adolescence to young adulthood are also warranted. Indeed, with regard to friendships, researchers have noted repeatedly (e.g., Newcomb & Bagwell, 1996) that longitudinal research is extremely limited, with much of it conducted over brief periods of time, with middle-class, White adolescents (e.g., Buhrmester & Furman, 1987) or with young children (e.g., Ladd, 1990). Notwithstanding, the extant research has suggested that over time, friendships become more intimate and self-disclosing, with gender differences in friendship quality becoming more pronounced during the transition from childhood to early adolescence (Berndt, 1989 Crockett et al., 1984 Furman & Burhmester, 1992 Hirsch & Rapkin, 1987 Youniss & Smollar, 1985) but less pronounced from early to late adolescence (Azmitia et al.,1998). Our research suggests a similar pattern but also indicates that gender...

Ventricular Tachycardia Fibrillation and Sudden Death

Although sudden death is mentioned in the Bible, the first studies linking sudden death to coronary artery disease date from the eighteenth century. In 1799, Caleb Parry quoted a letter from a good friend, Edward Jenner, the discoverer of smallpox vaccination. Jenner described an autopsy he had done

Interviewer Curiosity and Professional Ethics

It is normal for interviewers to have urges to ask clients inappropriate questions. Most counselors sometimes feel the desire to ask clients questions just to satisfy their own curiosity. For example, if a client mentions he or she grew up in the Portland, Oregon, area and the interviewer is from there, he or she may feel an impulse to ask Where did you go to high school or Did you ever go dancing at the Top of the Cosmo restaurant Although asking these questions may help with evaluating social status or academic background, the questions are more likely designed exclusively to satisfy the interviewer's curiosity. Additionally, such questions may give the interview a social, rather than therapeutic, flavor. Furthermore, giving in to curiosity questioning may devolve into excess self-disclosure (Yeah, I remember one night at the Cosmo when I had a couple of drinks and . . .), which might be interpreted as the beginnings of a friendship-type, mutual relationship rather than a...

Empowering the Client

Women's health groups and disease-focused social movements have long negotiated between objectives of empowerment and protection as they articulate their identities. The first edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves, published in 1973, served as the modern, empowered woman's bible that launched a generation of women's health activism. It popularized the phrase Knowledge is Power, and it emphasized the importance of an individual's control over her body through knowledge, particularly in the face of what the authors perceived to be a paternalistic medical establishment Finding out about our bodies and our bodies' needs, starting to take control over that area of our lives, has released for us an energy that has overflowed into our work, our friendships, our relationships with men and women, and for some of us, our marriages and parenthood.16 Simultaneously, however, the book

Social Networks Emotions and Gender

In addition to studying dyadic friendships, researchers have also explored the structure and functions of children's larger social networks. With the possible exception of research showing that young adolescents who are aggressive tend to form networks with other aggressive youth (Cairns, Cairns, Neckerman, Gest, & Gariepy, 1988), little research has explored processes of emotion regulation among children's social networks. However, research and theory suggests that children might form networks based on similar styles of emotion management, and also socialize each other in how to manage strong feelings. For example, one study of the relation between children's naturally occurring social networks and their motivation in school found that children formed networks with others of similar academic motivation, but also that network members became more similar over time in their motivation for doing well in school (Kindermann, 1993). Given the centrality of emotion regulation in forming...

Observing More Subtle Forms of Anger Expression Among Children

We developed this laboratory task as a way to try to observe what we call social aggression, the more subtle ways that children, perhaps girls in particular, might express anger and contempt toward one another (see Cairns, Cairns, Neckerman, Ferguson, & Gariepy, 1989). Social aggression consists of disdainful facial expressions, negative evaluation gossip, exclusionary behavior, or friendship manipulation (Galen & Underwood, 1997). Social aggression is directed toward damaging another's friendships or social status, and may take direct forms such as verbal rejection, negative facial expressions or body movements, or more indirect forms such as slanderous rumors or social exclusion. We chose the term because it aptly describes a class of behaviors that belong together because they serve the same function in ongoing social interaction to hurt another person by doing harm to her self-concept or social standing. Although many of the behaviors thought to be socially aggressive (such...

Results and Discussion

These findings indicate that this game task was successful in eliciting elements of social aggression. Reliable coding was possible even for subtle facial expressions. Although we recognize that not all types of socially aggressive behaviors could be observed in this setting (particularly aspects related to manipulating friendship patterns), some of the specific behaviors observed in response to an unpleasant stranger may be similar to those involved in social exclusion among friends, such as not responding to what a person says or does (ignoring) or exhibiting disdainful facial expressions (Olweus, 1991). Girls' responses to interview questions after the game indicated that the method was successful the confederate was not well-liked by the participants. The participants found her to be mean rather than nice, and indicated that she made them moderately angry. Participants' descriptions of their overall impressions of the confederate were also predominantly negative. An important...

Genomic Imaging of Extraversion

Some people are best known for their laughter. Wherever they are, that's where the party is. They draw others in, they value social contact, and they thoroughly enjoy good times shared with anybody. Drop them into a room of strangers, and they'll be best friends with everyone within the hour. These are the individuals who make the trait concept of extraversion come to life. What makes these people behave this way Where do they get their energy If I am not like that, but would like to be, could I Can extraversion be acquired, or must one be born that way Since all behavior must be represented in the brain, what are the neural differences between extraverts and introverts

Feelings as Byproducts

Pretend that you are in an elevator between the 15 th and 16th floors when the elevator suddenly stops and the lights go out. You hear a sound that appears to be the snapping of elevator cables. Suddenly, the elevator lurches and then drops 2 ft. You call out, but nobody comes to your rescue. After about an hour, the elevator starts up again, and you get off on the 16th floor. Six months later, a good friend invites you to dinner. You meet downtown, and you discover that your friend has made reservations at a restaurant called The Room at the Top, which is located on the 20th floor of a skyscraper. Standing in front of the elevator, a sudden feeling of panic overwhelms you. You make a socially appropriate excuse like, I don't feel well, and you leave. What is the reason for your behavior and the accompanying feeling

An Ecological Model Of Human Development

Our work on friendship is grounded in an ecological understanding of human development (Bron-fenbrenner, 1979, 1989). An ecological framework draws attention to the adolescent's immediate developmental milieu, interrelations among major settings, and specific social structures that exert indirect influence on proximal environments in which the adolescent lives. Considering that the child exists within multiple intersecting and overlapping contexts that determine what is adaptive or normative, the various levels (child, relationships, and settings) of the ecological system should not be considered in isolation from one another. adolescent development, with each context influencing the ways in which adolescents experience other contexts. For example, how an adolescent experiences high school is influenced not only by the type of school attended previously, but also by the attitude his her family has toward school, the perceived safety of the neighborhood, and the quality of peer...

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The barnacle years were eventful ones for Darwin and his family. Some incidents of the period were joyous Darwin's new friendship with Thomas H. Huxley, for example, and the medal awarded him by the Royal Society in 1853 for his contributions to natural history. Some, such as the deaths of Darwin's father in 1848 and his daughter Annie's death a few years later, were tragic. Distress over Dr. Robert's illness and death may have contributed to a breakdown in Darwin's health that kept him bedridden for months during 1848 and 1849. Barely had Darwin recovered from his grief over his father's death when Annie, his beloved daughter, fell ill with a stomach complaint that caused prolonged vomiting. Darwin took her to a health resort to consult the best doctor he could find, but nothing helped. Annie grew weaker and weaker. From her bedside Darwin wrote tearfully to Emma, who was at home caring for the younger children, I wish you could see her now, the perfection of gentleness, patience...

The Neighborhood Context

Recent studies have indicated that friendship experiences vary depending on the quality and characteristics of the neighborhood (Berg & Medrich, 1980 DuBois & Hirsch, 1990 Epstein, 1989) Homel & Burns, 1989). Children, for example, living in neighborhoods with easily accessible play spaces have more contact with friends outside of school and more friends in general than those who live in neighborhoods without such places (Berg & Medrich, 1980 Homel & Burns, 1989). Similarly, youth residing in dangerous neighborhoods with a high prevalence of violence tend to have fewer neighborhood friends and less contact with their friends outside of school than their peers who live in less violent neighborhoods (Rosenbaum, 20 003 Way, 1998). Neighborhood climate has also been shown to influence friendship satisfaction. For example, in their study of urban low-income early adolescents, Homel and Burns (1989) found neighborhood social problems (e.g., crime, delinquency) to predict...

Uncle Charles Empson in Newcastle

Hardcastle's practice extended beyond the town walls to include the mining village of Killingworth connected to the West Moor colliery. For several years he was general practitioner for the family of George Stephenson, the pioneering mining and railway engineer who invented the first steam locomotive, The Rocket. Hardcastle developed a close friendship with Stephenson's son, Robert, and introduced him to Charles Empson, Fanny Snow's half-brother. The three men were urbane, cosmopolitan, and pragmatic. All were members of the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society.57

Roles and pain behaviour

If the sufferer is in pain but continuing to work there can be an effect on the relationships with co-workers. This may reflect an inability to carry out the full work role, increasing the burden of others. This may lead to complaints and the sufferer being picked on or excluded from friendship groups (Roy 1992). They may be accused of malingering, of trying to escape from unpleasant duties or responsibilities, although there is little hard evidence in support of malingering as an important aspect of chronic pain (Skevington 1995). Then the onus is on the sufferer to confirm the existence of pain with evidence other than just their word. There does seem to be little evidence that people in pain exaggerate it in order to support their claim, or indeed report higher levels of pain or disability

Cultural aspects of pain

We have been looking at the various groups and relationships that individuals belong to and with whom they live and work and have their friendships. All these groups and relationships are set in a larger society and that larger society itself has influence, on the groups, the families and the individual. By sharing information, beliefs and strategies for coping we all benefit.

Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution

Charles Darwin is credited with bringing the theory of evolution into the mainstream of modern science (Figure 8.2). The youngest son of a wealthy physician, Darwin had spent much of his early life as a lackluster student. After dropping out of medical school at Edinburgh University and at the urging of his father, Darwin entered Cambridge University to study for the ministry. Darwin barely made it through his classes, but did strike up friendships with several members of the scientific community at the college. One of his closest companions at Cambridge was Professor John Henslow, an influential botanist. It was Henslow who secured Darwin his first job after graduation. In 1831, at age 22, he set out on what would become his life-defining journey the voyage of the HMS Beagle.

Correcting Negative Female Workplace Behaviors

Women are less likely than men to have used the give-and-take team concept of you help me and I'll help you and we'll both get ahead. Women operate on a higher utopian level what is right and just is more important than any other consideration. Women act as police officers of one another, making sure that what their coworkers do is right and correct and trashing them to keep them in their place. Women tend to become over friendly, one-to-one. Women who work together and become fast friends tell each other their deepest secrets, which are sometimes used against them when the friendship dissolves. Women give away power by giving away too much of themselves. Women are more likely to work for social rewards men work for money.

Literary Analysis

Wit, a teaching play benefiting both the actors and the audience alike, at first portrays Bearing unsympathetically. She is a disciplined professor who has sacrificed friendship for intellectual achievement. Once ill, she wages a personal battle for survival by drawing on the only resources she has built up the metaphysical poetry ofJohn Donne (1572-1631). Donne was a seventeenth-century Anglican priest who became the dean of St. Paul's Cathedral in London in 1621. Family deaths including wife Anne More and several children and his own extended illness caused him to write a series of spiritual meditations, Devotions upon Emergent Occasions. In these essays and in his earlier Holy Sonnets salvation anxiety questioning his faith was prevalent. Although he died after a lingering illness, hope of salvation swept into his later years. His dramatic sonnets are an intellectual exercise for Bearing featuring conceits, complex poetic devices including simile, metaphor, puns, hyperbole, and...

Peer Social Influence

One important recent advance in the study of peer influence is the change in emphasis from establishing that peer influence is important in the initiation or maintenance of negative behaviors to an emphasis on factors that actually mediate or moderate that influence. By maintaining a focus on the peer group as the context in which influence takes place, researchers have learned much about the factors that contribute (or not) to children's decisions to give in to peer pressure. For example, there are differential effects of peer smoking based on how close the friendship is while the influence of a best friend's smoking has been shown to be a strong predictor of adolescent smoking, the influence of the social crowd to which adolescents belong is minimal (Urberg, 1992). An important direction for future research is the extension of peer influence research to younger age groups. Most of this research has focused on adolescents, for good reasons. Behaviors investigated in peer pressure...

The Meaning of Eating in Terminally Ill Patients Importance of Carers

Hughes and Neal focused their literature review (no formal systematic methodology) on the needs and wishes for food of patients with terminal illness and described nine food-related behaviours 17 . These included (1) food-practice determinants cultural, personal, social, situation, cash (2) nourishment (3) expression of friendship (4) maintenance of interpersonal relationships (5) to promote and maintain social status (6) as a way to cope with stress and tension (7) to influence the behaviour of others (8) religious and creative expression (9) 'channel theory' each household has a gatekeeper. The above-reported findings highlight the vast possible meanings of food and may guide sensible counselling.

Gender Development Two Cultures Theory

According to Two Cultures Theory, girls' and boys' groups differ on several dimensions play styles and activity preferences, discourse, friendships, and the size and power of peer groups (Maccoby, 1998). Briefly, girls prefer activities involving turn-taking and cooperation, whereas boys engage in more competitive activities (Crombie & Desjardins, 1993). Although boys and girls' conversational styles are similar in many respects, girls are more likely than boys are to accede to others' wishes to avoid conflicts (Miller, Danaher, & Forbes, 1986), and boys are more likely than girls are to urge each other to take risks and to discuss risqu or antisocial topics (Thorne & Luria, 1986). Although Two Cultures theorists characterize girls' friendships as more intimate and exclusive than boys' are (Maccoby, 1998), peer relations evidence suggests that gender differences may be more complex and that social context may be a powerful determinate of whether boys and girls engage in...

User Friendly Assessment and Information Gathering Strategies

The What's good about you game provides insights into client self-perceptions and self-esteem. Some youth have difficulty clearly stating a talent, skill, or positive personal attribute. They sometimes identify possessions, such as I have a nice bike or I have some good friends, instead of taking personal ownership of an attribute I am a good bike rider or My friendly personality helps me make friends. Similarly, they may describe a role they have (e.g., I am a good son) rather than identify personal attributes that make them good at the particular role (e.g., I am thoughtful with my parents and so I am a good son). In this case, the ability to clearly state positive personal attributes is probably evidence of more adequate self-esteem.

The Impact of Chronic Pain on Marriage and Family

The impact of chronic pain on the general welfare of the family is substantial. A Dutch study revealed that as a result of chronic pain in a partner, spouses invested more time on housekeeping and household maintenance, which resulted in less time for personal needs and leisure activities (Kemler and Furnee, 2002). In a qualitative study of 25 women with fibromyalgia, patients reported on many changes in their family life (Soderberg and Lundman, 2001). The major theme to emerge was that their relationship with their in husband and children had changed. Some of the husbands were understanding, but others were not so understanding of their wife's changed situation. The women's role in the family became more passive they needed more help from family members. The children had to provide more help than before. Many of the women regretted that they could not take proper care of their aging parents, and that in their intimate relationships the sexual patterns had changed the most. This is...

Future Directions

Research on peer relations in middle childhood continues to flourish and our understanding of children's friendships, social networks and peer social status is becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. More and more, studies of peer relations are examining gender differences in the functions and social processes of children's peer groups, and these studies will benefit from being guided by Two Cultures Theory to test its claims with different age groups and using multiple methods (Underwood, 2003). Two Cultures theorists have emphasized differences in girls' and boys' peer cultures (see Mac-coby, 1998, for an overview), mostly on the basis of laboratory studies with preschool children and ethnographic evidence with older samples. Peer relations researchers have found less dramatic gender differences, but this may be due to relying mostly on studies with larger samples of older children, using questionnaire and peer reports to measure friendships, networks, and peer status. Peer...

Summary of the Family Context

Previous attachment and social support-based research with predominantly White, middle-class adolescents, coupled with our own research with urban, low SES, ethnic minority youth indicate attachment-like associations between the quality of mother and or family relationships and adolescent friendships. However, our research also suggests patterns of compensatory associations between mother and friendship support that are as likely to exist among the adolescents in our studies as attachmentlike associations. Longitudinal and mixed method research with European American adolescents and middle to upper SES ethnic minority youth is thus warranted to elucidate whether this combination of compensatory and attachment-based patterns is evident in other populations of youth. Corroborating the existing research on ethnic minority youth (see Updegraff et al., 2001), our research shows that ethnic minority adolescents' perceptions of father support is not linked with perceptions of friendship...

Developmental Origins and Outcomes of Social Aggression

As a first step toward answering some of these questions, we are beginning a large, longitudinal study of 300 children and their families beginning when the children are 9 years old. Our overarching goal is to understand developmental origins and outcomes related to social aggression. We are measuring children's social aggression in laboratory observational studies, and also using peer nominations, teacher reports, parent reports, friend reports and self-reports. We seek to refine definitions of social aggression, to understand which behaviors do and do not belong in this construct describing behaviors that harm friendships and social status by using multiple measures to assess social aggression in different social contexts. We acknowledge that most aggressive behaviors hurt in more than one way and serve multiple goals, and that children who behave aggressively likely hurt peers in multiple ways. We believe that at particular points in development, both social and physical aggression...

Parental Relationships and Childrens Peer Relations

In addition to influencing social cognitions and providing instructive advice, other important ways mothers influence children's friendships in positive and negative ways include acting as managers of social opportunities and becoming involved in children's social lives (Hartup, 1979 Parke, 1978). For example, children with mothers who arrange opportunities for peer interaction are more likely to have larger peer networks, and to engage in more frequent play with friends than those having mothers with less involvement (Ladd & Golter, 1988). However, it is unclear from existing research what level of maternal involvement is optimal. We know some about the negative effects of mothers who are not involved in children's social lives, but much less about the effects of mothers becoming over-involved in peer relations. Could mothers who become enmeshed in children's peer relationships promote negative behaviors such as social aggression as a consequence of being overly invested in their...

Implications For Future Research

Having described our efforts to understand ethnic minority low SES, urban adolescents' experiences of friendships, we dedicate the remaining portion of this chapter to describing prevailing gaps in the literature, with the hope of inspiring further inquiry into the peer experiences of adolescents from ethnically, socioeconomically, and geographically diverse backgrounds. We believe that such research is critical, for despite changing demographics resulting in a proliferation of ethnic minority adolescents in the United States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2004) there remains a dearth of research on ethnic minority adolescents' experiences in the world (Fitzgerald, Lester, & Zuckerman, 1995 Garcia Coll, Akerman, & Cicchetti, 2000 Garcia Coll et al., 1996 Graham, 1992, 1994 Way & Chen, 2000). Indeed, in order to respond to the needs of such an increasingly diverse adolescent population, several important research agendas should be explored. Future research should examine the multiple...

Summary of the Neighborhood Context

Quantitative and qualitative research on the links between neighborhoods and adolescent friendships has consistently found neighborhoods to influence the ways in which adolescents obtain, engage, and maintaining friendships with peers (Brooks-Gunn et al., 1993 Jencks & Mayer, 1990 Seidman, 1991). In our own research, however, when adolescent perceptions of the neighborhood climate were considered in combination with the effects of family and school contexts, the relative influence of neighborhood climate on adolescent friendship quality was lost. Such findings underscore the limitations of evaluating contextual influences in isolation. It is also possible, as our qualitative data suggest, that although the neighborhood climate may indeed influence the extent to which adolescents choose to spend time with friends outside of school, it may have less of an affect on adolescents' perceptions of friendship quality of their friendships. Strikingly, our quantitative analyses have...

Acknowledgements

A particular cohort of doctoral students in the Anthropology Department at UCL, as well as members of the London-based'GAT'readinggroup, not only provided the necessary support and friendship but individually and collectively helped to create a context for the testing of fledgling ideas and an evolving analysis. For this my thanks go to Sarah Skodbo, Kathryn Tomlinson, Paul Basu, Sandra Squires, Lucy Norris, Audrey Prost, Patrick Laviolette, Sadie King, Susie Kilshaw, Carlos Novas, Adam Hedgecoe, Oonagh Corrigan, Filippa Corneliussen and Richard Tutton. There are a number of persons who worked in the cancer genetic clinics and the breast cancer research charity who helped make this research possible. I am indebted to them for their initial interest in the study, their friendship during the time of my research and their assistance in helping to facilitate this work. My thanks and gratitude also extend to the numerous persons who took part in the research that underpins the discussion...

Searcher

Ras did not return to Edinburgh after that first year instead, he went to London to finish his medical degree. Charles believed that Ras would never practice medicine, and events proved him right. Dr. Robert decided that Ras's health was too delicate to allow him to work, so Ras settled into a life of comfortable leisure in London, where he pursued friendships with leading literary and scientific figures.

Summary

Clinical interviewing involves a systematic modification of normal social interactions. Although the relationship established between interviewer and client is a friendly one, it is much different from friendship. Clinical interviews serve a dual function to evaluate and to help clients.

The School Context

Theorists also argue that students who perceive the school environment as respectful, supportive, equitable, safe, and dependable, will find it easier, and will be more willing to make and maintain supportive friendships with their peers than those who perceive the school as hostile (Epstein & Karweit, 1983 Minuchin & Shapiro, 1983). Epstein and Karweit (1983) note Negative features in a school environment ridicule, discrimination, low expectations, stereotypes, repressions, punishment, isolation may increase the disassociative quality of the setting and affect the thought processes and social behavior of the students (p. 60). Although the objective reality of the school (e.g., number of students in school, ethnic diversity) is likely associated with the characteristics and quality of friendships, adolescents' perceptions of the relational (e.g., teacher student and student student relationships) and organizational (e.g., sense of safety in the school) climate may also have a...

Pain Journals

The premier journal in the field is pain research is Pain. Careful and detailed search of this journal failed to produce a single article that had reported on chronic pain and family functioning. There was, however, one article that examined loss of roles associated with chronic pain (Harris et al., 2003), which found that greater losses of roles were observed in friendships, occupation, and leisure than in the family domain. It must be noted that until about the mid- to late 1990s this journal published some of the most important research carried out in the field of family and chronic pain. The lack of recent publication in this journal on our topic is perhaps a sign of its premature loss of interest in this critical area of research.

Concluding Remarks

There continues to be only a small body of developmental research on the friendships of racial and ethnic minorities (Fitzgerald et al., 1995 Garcia Coll et al., 2000, 1996 Graham, 1992, 1994). This is especially troubling given the centrality of peer relationships during adolescence. Moreover, few studies have examined the ways in which contexts or settings shape adolescent friendships (and vice versa) or the ways in which friendships are experienced within diverse contexts. Thus, longitudinal research that considers competing and corresponding socializing messages originating in and reinforced by the family, peer, school, and neighborhood contexts is critical (Phelan, Davidson, & Cao, 1991). Bronfenbrenner's (1977 1979) ecological model of human behavior provides a framework that is particularly suitable for understanding the ways in which contexts influence friendships or how youth experience varying contexts and or relationships. In order to adequately understand the...

Closeness

In our interviews, adolescents spoke at length about the ways in which they felt close to their best friends. Interestingly, when asked why they felt close to their best friends (or how their best friend was different from their other friends), commonly expressed sentiments included claims that they could trust their best friends with their secrets and their money. In addition, adolescents voiced feelings that they could trust closest friends to protect them from harm and that they would be there when needed. Although trust was consistently the foundation of closeness in friendships, the ways in which the adolescents in our studies trusted their friends varied across gender and occasionally ethnicity. Finally, adolescents conveyed feelings of closeness to their best friends due to the fact that their family knew their friends and their friends'families (and vice versa). Thus, while the literature typically characterizes adolescent friendship closeness by the extent to which each...

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