Words to Know

Chromosome A thread-shaped structure that carries genetic information in cells. Nucleus A compartment in the cell which is enclosed by a membrane and which contains its genetic information. Paternity The genetic father of an offspring. unreliability. DNA evidence has only been rejected due to errors in the testing process, such as incorrect readings by laboratory technicians. In fact, laboratory errors have been one of the biggest problems to DNA testing. Human errors are becoming less common...

Scientific Foundations

What Ladybugs Eat Plants

In nature, there are insects that feed on crops. Humans consider these insects to be pests. There are also other insects and diseases that naturally kill those insect pests. Biological pest control uses these natural killers to target the pests that are damaging crops. Predators, parasitoids, and pathogens are considered the natural enemies of crop pests. Predators are insects, such as ladybugs or spiders, which kill specific types of insects. These predators can be used to control insect...

Pacific Air Express

Organic compounds are made of carbon- and hydrogen-containing substances. Those that are acidic in nature are known as organic acids. Acids are strong substances with a low pH (a measure of acidity) and a sharp taste. Commonly used organic acids include amino acids, acetic acid, formic acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid, salicylic acid, and propionic acid. The commonly used organic acids have wide-ranging commercial uses. The antifungal property of propionic acid is used...

Biorobots in the Military

Bats are well known for their ability to navigate in the dark using echolocation. After emitting a sound, these bats can tell the distance, direction, size, surface texture, and material of an object from information in the returning sound wave or echo. Scientists at the U.S. Office of Naval Research are trying to use what they have learned about bat echolocation to improve their own radar systems. Their research has also extended to other types of animals. Lobsters, for example, have a keen...

Green Tea and Green Chemistry

Green tea has been shown by some scientific studies to help treat or prevent some cancers. However, in the past, these studies have not always provided the information needed for the creation of reliable and effective products. Recently, however, the medical and manufacturing communities have teamed up to work on this problem. University of Massachusetts biology profes sor Susan Braunhut and Dr. Jayant Kumar, director of the Center of Advanced Materials, are developing a product to kill breast...

Current Issues

Almost any plant can be grown with hydroponics under artificial or natural lighting and in almost any place in the world without worries of temperature changes, growing seasons, and climate changes. The environment for growing hydroponic plants is tightly Mineral A naturally occurring solid substance of nonbiological origin, having definite chemical composition and crystal structure. Nutrient A substance that provides nourishment. pH A measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a...

Finite Element Methods

Metabolic engineering helped create several beneficial bio-products products derived through living systems. Microorganisms and single-cell creatures are much simpler than their multi-cellular counterparts and have less genetic material and fewer biochemical reactions to be investigated. Consequently, researchers are more successful in engineering metabolic pathways in microorganisms. The primary objective of metabolic engineering is to improve human life. It is being used to create varieties...

Strange Brews

Barley, hops, water, and yeast are the main ingredients in beer. Change the process a bit, and the results are different types of beer ales, stouts, lagers, or porters. Some enterprising beer makers have added a few extra ingredients, including apples and berries, ginger and other roots, and nuts to spice up their brews. Boston Brewing Company adds chocolate to make a beer that tastes almost like dessert. The Dogfish Head Craft Brewery in Delaware has created a sweet ale made with cinnamon,...

Making a Compost Pile at Home

Organic ingredients and organic must contain at least 95 percent organic ingredients. By 2006, USDA standards were still different from standards of more than forty private and state fertilizer certification organizations. In addition, the USDA does not regulate the labeling of organic foods. Instead, state fertilizer control officers with the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials provide this service. Consequently, organic farmers may mistakenly buy what they think is...

Using E coli to make insulin

It helps move sugars and starches from the bloodstream into the cells, where they can be used for energy. People who have a disease called diabetes either do not make enough insulin or do not use it properly. They need to take insulin every day to keep their blood sugar levels under control. In the past, people with diabetes were often given insulin that was taken from animals. But sometimes their immune systems would recognize this insulin as foreign,...

Eurofresh Farms Produce Hydroponic Tomatoes

Various fruits and flowers without the use of soil. In 1937, Gericke created the word hydroponics from two Greek words hydro (water) and ponos (labor). Although his way of performing hydroponics was considered too difficult for commercial farming, his work is still considered the foundation for all types of hydroponics. In the late 1940s, American horticulturists Robert B. Withrow and Alice P. Withrow, of Purdue University, designed a practical hydroponic system. The U.S. and British militaries...

Ancient Grain Milling Machine

Around 500 bce, the Romans produced flour the top wheel with grain and used the handle with a simple milling machine. This machine to turn the wheel. The grain was crushed had as its base a stationary circular stone. between the two stones, and flour came out On the top of this base, was another circular from the tiny gap between the wheels. Milling stone with a hole in the center and a handle machines of this simple design are still used on one side. The miller filled the opening in in rural...

Fighting Terrorism and Buying Food with Biometrics

People in the United States and in many other countries around the world are concerned with terrorism. Consequently, bio-metric applications are becoming more popular and necessary. Government and private organizations are developing and promoting many biometric applications such as fingerprint scans, hand geometry, and retinal scans to defend against terrorism. For example, airport security in the near future will use face scanning and fingerprinting. Visitors crossing national borders may be...

Advisors and Contributors

While compiling this volume, the editors relied on the expertise and contributions of the following scholars, teachers, and writers William Arthur Atkins, M.S. Physics and science writer Normal, Illinois Department of Embryology, Obstetrics, and Gynecology University of Bologna. Italy Alexander I. Ioffe, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow, Russia Kelli Miller Stacey Science and technology writer Ms. Miller Stacy is winner of the American Medical Writers Association's...

Description

Fertilization is when an egg cell and a sperm cell come together to make an zygote, a cell that has all the DNA needed to make a new individual. In mammals warm-blooded animals, including humans , fertilization happens inside the female, but it can also be made to happen in a glass dish. Vitro is the Latin word for glass, so fertilization in the laboratory is called in-vitro fertilization. In-vitro fertilization IVF is used in cloning, animal breeding, and to overcome fertility problems in...

Penicillin Saves Nurse First

In March 1942, young nurse Anne Sheafe Miller lay near death in a Connecticut hospital with a temperature near 107 degrees Fahrenheit 42 degrees Celcius caused by a streptococcal infection. After trying everything available to save her life, including sulfa drugs, blood transfusions, and surgery, doctors gave Nurse Miller an injection of a small amount of an experimental drug, penicillin. Overnight, Miller's fever decreased, and by the next day, she was alert and eating meals. Miller became the...

Www.asgt.org History.shtml.

The FDA has to approve all new drugs and therapies before they can be used by the public. As of early 2006, the FDA had not approved any gene therapy technique. Although there have been a few successes, gene therapy is generally considered experimental. Scientists must overcome a few problems before the therapy can be used by patients. First, the effects of gene therapy often do not last because cells are always dividing. As cells with mutations divide, they keep making more and more faulty...