Development

In 1981, two different research groups were able to isolate embryonic stem cells from mice. In 1997, researchers were finally able to pull stem cells from human embryos. American researcher Dr. James Thomson and his team of researchers at the University of Wisconsin were the first to discover a method for isolating and growing human embryonic stem cells. Researchers who work with embryonic stem cells usually obtain frozen embryos at the blastocyst stage leftover from fertility clinic Embryonic...

Dislocation Density

American bioengineer Yuan-Cheng Fung, of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), originated the term and idea of tissue engineering in 1985. At that time, Fung led the UCSD team in their National Science Foundation (NSF) research proposal titled, Center for the Engineering of Living Tissues.'' Fung proposed the term again in 1987 at a NSF panel meeting, which led to a special NSF panel meeting on tissue engineering later that year. The first formal meeting involving tissue engineering...

Description

While some molecules have only two atoms, the largest have millions. Chemists and biologists often need to sort mixtures of heavy and light molecules to separate the molecules of different weights to learn more about them. Using electricity to do this sorting is called electrophoresis (pronounced ee-lek-tro-for-EE-sis). The word comes from electro, for electricity and phoresis, from the Greek word meaning being carried.'' In electrophoresis, an electric field...

Finite Element Methods

Metabolic engineering helped create several beneficial bio-products products derived through living systems. Microorganisms and single-cell creatures are much simpler than their multi-cellular counterparts and have less genetic material and fewer biochemical reactions to be investigated. Consequently, researchers are more successful in engineering metabolic pathways in microorganisms. The primary objective of metabolic engineering is to improve human life. It is being used to create varieties...

Finite Element Model

The big advantage to producing genetically engineering frost-resistant crops is that they are hardier than normal crops. For example, wheat, corn, and other food crops with a frost-resistant gene could be grown in cold regions of the world where they would not normally grow. Creating crops that are frost-resistant can also extend the growing season, which could result in higher crop yields. Those who oppose genetic modification say they are concerned about the effects these plants might have on...

Current Issues

The haplotype map produced by the HapMap Project does not directly help human health. Its purpose is to help researchers track down the genetic causes of various diseases. This can be done by comparing the haplotypes of people who have a certain disease, such as cancer, with the haplotypes of people who are less likely to who have the disease, or who do not have it at all. If one haplotype is more common in the people who get the disease, then it is likely that a gene somewhere in the haplotype...

Simulation Results

The bioremediation of explosives is an inexpensive way to treat contaminated soil. In addition, it is a method that is environmentally friendly because it uses naturally occurring microorganisms. The environmental community accepts bioremediation as a safe way to remove explosives from soil. With its simple way of destroying explosives, it usually costs less than non-biological methods, such as incineration (burning). Although the bioremediation of explosives is effective and inexpensive to...

Building a New Body

Doctors often use skin substitutes to cover open wounds. Skin substitutes protect against fluid loss and infection, and help the wound heal. There are four different types of skin substitutes that can be used to replace lost skin autografts, allografts, synthetic skin, and tissue-engineered skin. An autograft uses epidermal skin from another part of the patient's body. An allograft uses skin from a cadaver (a dead body) or from a pig. An allograft is only temporary because the person's body...

Strange Brews

Barley, hops, water, and yeast are the main ingredients in beer. Change the process a bit, and the results are different types of beer ales, stouts, lagers, or porters. Some enterprising beer makers have added a few extra ingredients, including apples and berries, ginger and other roots, and nuts to spice up their brews. Boston Brewing Company adds chocolate to make a beer that tastes almost like dessert. The Dogfish Head Craft Brewery in Delaware has created a sweet ale made with cinnamon,...

Making a Compost Pile at Home

Organic ingredients and organic must contain at least 95 percent organic ingredients. By 2006, USDA standards were still different from standards of more than forty private and state fertilizer certification organizations. In addition, the USDA does not regulate the labeling of organic foods. Instead, state fertilizer control officers with the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials provide this service. Consequently, organic farmers may mistakenly buy what they think is...

Using E coli to make insulin

It helps move sugars and starches from the bloodstream into the cells, where they can be used for energy. People who have a disease called diabetes either do not make enough insulin or do not use it properly. They need to take insulin every day to keep their blood sugar levels under control. In the past, people with diabetes were often given insulin that was taken from animals. But sometimes their immune systems would recognize this insulin as foreign,...

Eurofresh Farms Produce Hydroponic Tomatoes

Various fruits and flowers without the use of soil. In 1937, Gericke created the word hydroponics from two Greek words hydro (water) and ponos (labor). Although his way of performing hydroponics was considered too difficult for commercial farming, his work is still considered the foundation for all types of hydroponics. In the late 1940s, American horticulturists Robert B. Withrow and Alice P. Withrow, of Purdue University, designed a practical hydroponic system. The U.S. and British militaries...

Scientific Foundations

Plants need nutrients to grow and survive. Nutrients can be mineral or non-mineral. Non-mineral nutrients are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are found in air and water. Plants use energy from the Sun to change carbon dioxide (the gas that makes up the majority of what animals breathe out) and water into food (such as starches and sugars). Mineral nutrients come from the soil. They dissolve in water and are absorbed into the plant's roots. Mineral nutrients are divided into macronutrients...

Yogurt Goes Mainstream

Only a few decades ago, yogurt was viewed yogurt surpassing 3 billion, an increase of as an exotic and not necessarily desired seven percent from 2004, according to the food. Then, fewer than 10 percent of Amer- market research firm A.C. Nielsen. Yogurt is icans ate yogurt regularly. In 2005, that fig- now added to items as different as cereal, ure had jumped to more than 20 percent of granola bars, baby formulation, petfood, the population. During that year, sales of and even toothpaste....

Designer Baby Saves Sibling

In 2000, a Colorado couple created a testtube baby to save the life of their six-year-old daughter, Molly, who had a bone marrow disease called Fanconi anemia. Molly needed a bone marrow transplant (a treatment in which she would receive new cells to replace her damaged bone marrow cells) in order to survive. Her parents used a procedure that tests the mother's egg and the father's sperm in a laboratory to make sure they did not contain the gene for Fanconi anemia. Scientists then combined the...

Ancient Grain Milling Machine

Around 500 bce, the Romans produced flour the top wheel with grain and used the handle with a simple milling machine. This machine to turn the wheel. The grain was crushed had as its base a stationary circular stone. between the two stones, and flour came out On the top of this base, was another circular from the tiny gap between the wheels. Milling stone with a hole in the center and a handle machines of this simple design are still used on one side. The miller filled the opening in in rural...

Fighting Terrorism and Buying Food with Biometrics

People in the United States and in many other countries around the world are concerned with terrorism. Consequently, bio-metric applications are becoming more popular and necessary. Government and private organizations are developing and promoting many biometric applications such as fingerprint scans, hand geometry, and retinal scans to defend against terrorism. For example, airport security in the near future will use face scanning and fingerprinting. Visitors crossing national borders may be...

Words to Know

Arrhythmia Any abnormal rhythm of the heart, which can be too rapid, too slow, or irregular in pace one of the symptoms of anxiety disorder. Cardiac Having to do with the heart. Clotting The solidification of blood in response to a wound coagulation. Coagulation The solidifying or clotting of blood. Beneficial when used by the body to seal a wound harmful if it occurs inside blood vessels. Tachycardia An elevated heart rate due to exercise or some other condition such as an anxiety attack....

Advisors and Contributors

While compiling this volume, the editors relied on the expertise and contributions of the following scholars, teachers, and writers William Arthur Atkins, M.S. Physics and science writer Normal, Illinois Department of Embryology, Obstetrics, and Gynecology University of Bologna. Italy Alexander I. Ioffe, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow, Russia Kelli Miller Stacey Science and technology writer Ms. Miller Stacy is winner of the American Medical Writers Association's...

Penicillin Saves Nurse First

In March 1942, young nurse Anne Sheafe Miller lay near death in a Connecticut hospital with a temperature near 107 degrees Fahrenheit 42 degrees Celcius caused by a streptococcal infection. After trying everything available to save her life, including sulfa drugs, blood transfusions, and surgery, doctors gave Nurse Miller an injection of a small amount of an experimental drug, penicillin. Overnight, Miller's fever decreased, and by the next day, she was alert and eating meals. Miller became the...

The Effects of Aspirin

Aspirin has long been known to reduce the ability of the blood to clot or solidify. This can be a good thing, in moderation for over twenty years, doctors have been recommending that some of their adult patients take small doses of aspirin to reduce the chances of stroke and heart attack. In 2006, however, a surprising result was found. In a study of over 90,000 adults taking a small amount of aspirin every day, it was found that aspirin decreased the number of heart attacks being suffered by...

Www.asgt.org History.shtml.

The FDA has to approve all new drugs and therapies before they can be used by the public. As of early 2006, the FDA had not approved any gene therapy technique. Although there have been a few successes, gene therapy is generally considered experimental. Scientists must overcome a few problems before the therapy can be used by patients. First, the effects of gene therapy often do not last because cells are always dividing. As cells with mutations divide, they keep making more and more faulty...