Research into a DNA Vaccine for HIV

As of 2006, there was no vaccine to prevent infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It is important to develop an effective and safe vaccine, since over 25 million people died from AIDS-related causes between 1981 and 2005. Consequently, scientists around the world are working intensively to develop a DNA vaccine and have tested many of these vaccines. Such vaccines are made artificially, so they do not contain any actual HIV viruses. As a result, DNA...

Bees are Busy as Bees Producing Honey

The world, living everywhere except in polar areas, in very high altitudes, and on some small islands. Most bees like warm and arid or semiarid areas. There are around 20,000 species of bees. Early harvesting of honey and beeswax involved the killing the bees living in the hives. In 1851, American apiarist Lorenzo Lorraine Langstroth (1810-1895) discovered how bees build their hives what he called the principle of bee space. Langstroth found that bees built hives with about 0.23 inches (0.6...

Scientific Foundations

Cancer develops when the cells of an organ or tissue grow out of control. Normal cells grow, divide and then die. Cancer cells, instead of dying, out-live normal cells and continue to divide abnormally. Cancer cells develop due to damage in the genetic material, or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), in cells. When DNA becomes damaged, normal cells repair it however, in cancer cells, this mechanism of repair is somehow disrupted. Cancer can be inherited or it can be caused by something in the...

Current Issues

GenBank has become a necessary tool for many scientists. It is also, thanks to cheap DNA sequencing technologies that had become available starting in the 1990s, growing faster than ever. As of 2003, GenBank contained records of over 33 billion bases in 27 million sequences and was growing at almost a million sequences (lists of DNA bases) a month. In that year alone, more than 40 complete bacterial genomes were added to the database. The information in GenBank concerns species it does not...

Needed HIV Drugs for Kids

In 2005, about three million people died of AIDS, about 600,000 of them children. Many babies are born every year with HIV, and half die before the age of two. In 2005, the international aid group Doctors Without Borders said that one reason for this high rate of infant death is that drug companies do not make combination-therapy pills small enough for young children. Doctors in poor countries, where most babies with AIDS are born, must therefore chop or crush pills meant for adults. The doses...

Vaccine for Alzheimers

Alzheimer's disease is a condition where the nerve cells of the brains of elderly people slowly stop working, leading to memory loss, madness, and death. Some scientists think that Alzheimer's is caused by the buildup in the brain of chemicals called amyloid-beta peptides. They are trying to make a vaccine using a kind of vaccine called a DNA vaccine. In this kind of vaccination, DNA is put into body cells. This DNA acts like a recipe for an antibody, which is a substance that helps the body's...

What Is The Density Of Biorubber

Some advantages of biorubber are its strength, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and inexpensive price. It does not cost much when compared to similar materials because researchers have been able to make large amounts of biorubber. Its characteristics are also easily altered by changing the ratio of glycerol and sebacic acid. A certain amount of each ingredient is used, for example, to produce biorubber that degrades slowly in the body. Biorubber has not been approved for human use by the...

Web sites

Boston University Biodefense. ''Frequently Asked Questions About Biode-fense.'' November 2003. pages faq.html> (accessed June 7, 2006). CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). ''CDCSite Index A-Z.'' < http www.cdc.gov az.do> (accessed October 8, 2006). ''Creating a Cloned Sheep Named Dolly.'' National Institutes of Health. (accessed April 23, 2006). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ''Cheese Making.'' (accessed August 4, 2006). Food and Drug...

Pacific Air Express

Organic compounds are made of carbon- and hydrogen-containing substances. Those that are acidic in nature are known as organic acids. Acids are strong substances with a low pH (a measure of acidity) and a sharp taste. Commonly used organic acids include amino acids, acetic acid, formic acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid, salicylic acid, and propionic acid. The commonly used organic acids have wide-ranging commercial uses. The antifungal property of propionic acid is used...

Green Tea and Green Chemistry

Green tea has been shown by some scientific studies to help treat or prevent some cancers. However, in the past, these studies have not always provided the information needed for the creation of reliable and effective products. Recently, however, the medical and manufacturing communities have teamed up to work on this problem. University of Massachusetts biology profes sor Susan Braunhut and Dr. Jayant Kumar, director of the Center of Advanced Materials, are developing a product to kill breast...

Development

In 1981, two different research groups were able to isolate embryonic stem cells from mice. In 1997, researchers were finally able to pull stem cells from human embryos. American researcher Dr. James Thomson and his team of researchers at the University of Wisconsin were the first to discover a method for isolating and growing human embryonic stem cells. Researchers who work with embryonic stem cells usually obtain frozen embryos at the blastocyst stage leftover from fertility clinic Embryonic...

Finite Element Model

The big advantage to producing genetically engineering frost-resistant crops is that they are hardier than normal crops. For example, wheat, corn, and other food crops with a frost-resistant gene could be grown in cold regions of the world where they would not normally grow. Creating crops that are frost-resistant can also extend the growing season, which could result in higher crop yields. Those who oppose genetic modification say they are concerned about the effects these plants might have on...

Simulation Results

The bioremediation of explosives is an inexpensive way to treat contaminated soil. In addition, it is a method that is environmentally friendly because it uses naturally occurring microorganisms. The environmental community accepts bioremediation as a safe way to remove explosives from soil. With its simple way of destroying explosives, it usually costs less than non-biological methods, such as incineration (burning). Although the bioremediation of explosives is effective and inexpensive to...

Strange Brews

Barley, hops, water, and yeast are the main ingredients in beer. Change the process a bit, and the results are different types of beer ales, stouts, lagers, or porters. Some enterprising beer makers have added a few extra ingredients, including apples and berries, ginger and other roots, and nuts to spice up their brews. Boston Brewing Company adds chocolate to make a beer that tastes almost like dessert. The Dogfish Head Craft Brewery in Delaware has created a sweet ale made with cinnamon,...

Making a Compost Pile at Home

Organic ingredients and organic must contain at least 95 percent organic ingredients. By 2006, USDA standards were still different from standards of more than forty private and state fertilizer certification organizations. In addition, the USDA does not regulate the labeling of organic foods. Instead, state fertilizer control officers with the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials provide this service. Consequently, organic farmers may mistakenly buy what they think is...

Using E coli to make insulin

It helps move sugars and starches from the bloodstream into the cells, where they can be used for energy. People who have a disease called diabetes either do not make enough insulin or do not use it properly. They need to take insulin every day to keep their blood sugar levels under control. In the past, people with diabetes were often given insulin that was taken from animals. But sometimes their immune systems would recognize this insulin as foreign,...

Eurofresh Farms Produce Hydroponic Tomatoes

Various fruits and flowers without the use of soil. In 1937, Gericke created the word hydroponics from two Greek words hydro (water) and ponos (labor). Although his way of performing hydroponics was considered too difficult for commercial farming, his work is still considered the foundation for all types of hydroponics. In the late 1940s, American horticulturists Robert B. Withrow and Alice P. Withrow, of Purdue University, designed a practical hydroponic system. The U.S. and British militaries...

Ancient Grain Milling Machine

Around 500 bce, the Romans produced flour the top wheel with grain and used the handle with a simple milling machine. This machine to turn the wheel. The grain was crushed had as its base a stationary circular stone. between the two stones, and flour came out On the top of this base, was another circular from the tiny gap between the wheels. Milling stone with a hole in the center and a handle machines of this simple design are still used on one side. The miller filled the opening in in rural...

Fighting Terrorism and Buying Food with Biometrics

People in the United States and in many other countries around the world are concerned with terrorism. Consequently, bio-metric applications are becoming more popular and necessary. Government and private organizations are developing and promoting many biometric applications such as fingerprint scans, hand geometry, and retinal scans to defend against terrorism. For example, airport security in the near future will use face scanning and fingerprinting. Visitors crossing national borders may be...

Words to Know

Arrhythmia Any abnormal rhythm of the heart, which can be too rapid, too slow, or irregular in pace one of the symptoms of anxiety disorder. Cardiac Having to do with the heart. Clotting The solidification of blood in response to a wound coagulation. Coagulation The solidifying or clotting of blood. Beneficial when used by the body to seal a wound harmful if it occurs inside blood vessels. Tachycardia An elevated heart rate due to exercise or some other condition such as an anxiety attack....

Advisors and Contributors

While compiling this volume, the editors relied on the expertise and contributions of the following scholars, teachers, and writers William Arthur Atkins, M.S. Physics and science writer Normal, Illinois Department of Embryology, Obstetrics, and Gynecology University of Bologna. Italy Alexander I. Ioffe, Ph.D. Senior Scientist Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow, Russia Kelli Miller Stacey Science and technology writer Ms. Miller Stacy is winner of the American Medical Writers Association's...

Description

Fertilization is when an egg cell and a sperm cell come together to make an zygote, a cell that has all the DNA needed to make a new individual. In mammals warm-blooded animals, including humans , fertilization happens inside the female, but it can also be made to happen in a glass dish. Vitro is the Latin word for glass, so fertilization in the laboratory is called in-vitro fertilization. In-vitro fertilization IVF is used in cloning, animal breeding, and to overcome fertility problems in...

Penicillin Saves Nurse First

In March 1942, young nurse Anne Sheafe Miller lay near death in a Connecticut hospital with a temperature near 107 degrees Fahrenheit 42 degrees Celcius caused by a streptococcal infection. After trying everything available to save her life, including sulfa drugs, blood transfusions, and surgery, doctors gave Nurse Miller an injection of a small amount of an experimental drug, penicillin. Overnight, Miller's fever decreased, and by the next day, she was alert and eating meals. Miller became the...

Andre the Giant

Andre Rene Roussimoff, otherwise known perform in America under the name Andre the as ''Andre the Giant'' 1946-1993 , was Giant. He appeared in Sports Illustrated maga- born in Grenoble, France to normal-sized zine, and began acting in television and movies. parents. He displayed symptoms of gigan- His most famous role was that of Fezzik, in the tism early in life, standing six feet, seven 1987 film, The Princess Bride. inches tall by the time he was a teenager. Andre grew until he reached...

The Effects of Aspirin

Aspirin has long been known to reduce the ability of the blood to clot or solidify. This can be a good thing, in moderation for over twenty years, doctors have been recommending that some of their adult patients take small doses of aspirin to reduce the chances of stroke and heart attack. In 2006, however, a surprising result was found. In a study of over 90,000 adults taking a small amount of aspirin every day, it was found that aspirin decreased the number of heart attacks being suffered by...

Www.asgt.org History.shtml.

The FDA has to approve all new drugs and therapies before they can be used by the public. As of early 2006, the FDA had not approved any gene therapy technique. Although there have been a few successes, gene therapy is generally considered experimental. Scientists must overcome a few problems before the therapy can be used by patients. First, the effects of gene therapy often do not last because cells are always dividing. As cells with mutations divide, they keep making more and more faulty...