Case Study 3 An indigenous community says no Negotiating access to charr broodstock in northern Canada

Countries take many approaches to the recognition of indigenous rights of ownership and control over aquatic genetic resources. Canada has been actively involved in the negotiation of treaties with indigenous peoples. The Inuit, a people along the Arctic coast, recently completed an agreement that recognizes both land and resource rights. The Canadian DFO retains a role in the management of seagoing fish, but communities have the right to prior informed consent to collection of fish broodstock....

Genetic improvement

One way of increasing aquaculture production is through the use of genetic improvement techniques, including selective breeding, chromosome manipulation, hydridization, production of monosex animals and, more recently, gene transfer. While selective breeding may be the best long-term strategy, a variety of short-term strategies are used for an immediate increase in production. In Venezuela, hybrids of cachama and morocoto account for perhaps 80 per cent of the aquaculture of these species....

Case Study 2 Chapter 2 No Policy No access A salmon farmers frustrated efforts to collect genetically pure broodstock

Creative Salmon, an aquaculture business farming chinook salmon in British Columbia, decided to enhance its stocks by cross-breeding them with Yukon River chinook. What makes Yukon chinook desirable is the high oil content that is characteristic of fish inhabiting Arctic waters and an important asset for sale of salmon to Japanese markets. Because chinook populations mingle in the Yukon River on the way to their separate spawning grounds, Creative Salmon applied to the Canadian Department of...

Biopiracy and aquatic genetic resources

It's hard to imagine aquatic resources parallels for the biopiracy examples described above. One might have occurred if Aqua Bounty had developed and patented the 'Super Salmon' after learning from indigenous people about the anti-freeze properties of the ocean pout, which were used to create the new strain. Even then, the company might have argued that the desirable characteristics of the pout were obvious to any observer. Traditional knowledge of aquatic biodiversity may be abundant but is...

Case Study 4 Chapter 4 Genetic improvement of farmed tilapia Lessons from the GIFT project

The International Center for Living Aquatic Resource Management ICLARM, now known as the World Fish Center works with farmers, scientists and policy makers to help the rural poor increase their income, preserve their environment and improve their lives through the sustainable use of aquatic resources. Tropical finfish currently account for about 90 per cent of global aquaculture production for food. Most species currently farmed are genetically very similar to wild, undomesticated stocks. For...